INT5854

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Context Info
Confidence 0.61
First Reported 1990
Last Reported 2009
Negated 3
Speculated 3
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 22
Total Number 25
Disease Relevance 6.91
Pain Relevance 10.03

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
hypothalamus 10
striatum 6
spinal cord 4
trigeminal nerve 2
dorsal horns 2
Penk (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 73 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 40 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
cocaine 14 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 5 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperalgesia 5 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 12 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
opioid receptor 25 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 23 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 7 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
qutenza 12 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Stress 13 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperalgesia 6 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pressure And Volume Under Development 1 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 16 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 113 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 31 98.40 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 13 97.96 Very High Very High Very High
Dystonia 8 95.96 Very High Very High Very High
Dyskinesias 5 95.48 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Mechanisms regulating proenkephalin gene expression: contributions of transgenic models.
Regulation (regulating) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin gene associated with targeted disruption and enkephalin
1) Confidence 0.61 Published 1996 Journal NIDA Res. Monogr. Section Title Doc Link 8784844 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.40
Using this mouse model, exploration of the mechanisms regulating expression of the proenkephalin gene in the mouse hypothalamus have begun.
Regulation (regulating) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin gene in hypothalamus
2) Confidence 0.61 Published 1996 Journal NIDA Res. Monogr. Section Abstract Doc Link 8784844 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.29
Transsynaptic regulation of preproenkephalin expression in pain-modulating areas of the nucleus caudalis of the trigeminal nerve thus depends on the specific type of primary afferent input.
Regulation (regulation) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin in trigeminal nerve associated with pain and fifth nerve
3) Confidence 0.61 Published 1990 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2081812 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.37
High intensity stimulation is effective only at later time points in normal animals, but it causes both early and late effects on preproenkephalin expression when applied to animals neonatally lesioned with capsaicin.
Regulation (effects) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin associated with qutenza
4) Confidence 0.61 Published 1990 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2081812 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.36
Penk gene expression was not modulated by acute MDMA, but a decrease of Pomc gene expression was observed, which was not antagonized by NTI.
Neg (not) Regulation (modulated) of Gene_expression (expression) of Penk associated with enkephalin
5) Confidence 0.60 Published 2009 Journal Addict Biol Section Abstract Doc Link 19523041 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.92
Changes in preproenkephalin expression in the caudate and putamen have been linked to the development of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesias in primate models of Parkinson's disease, although not all investigators have been able to confirm this association.
Regulation (Changes) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin in putamen associated with disease and dyskinesias
6) Confidence 0.50 Published 2002 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 12123699 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0
The expression of the principal opioid peptide gene, preproenkephalin A, is exquisitely regulated by primary afferent inputs to the spinal and medullary dorsal horns.
Regulation (regulated) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin in dorsal horns associated with opioid
7) Confidence 0.46 Published 1992 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 1317494 Disease Relevance 0.21 Pain Relevance 0.20
The aim of the study was to determine whether the haloperidol-produced induction of the c-fos gene in the mouse striatum is the cause of the increased expression of the striatal proenkephalin (PENK) gene after repeated haloperidol administration.
Spec (whether) Regulation (cause) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK in striatum
8) Confidence 0.45 Published 1995 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8750842 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The aim of the study was to determine whether the haloperidol-produced induction of the c-fos gene in the mouse striatum is the cause of the increased expression of the striatal proenkephalin (PENK) gene after repeated haloperidol administration.
Spec (whether) Regulation (cause) of Gene_expression (expression) of striatal proenkephalin in striatum
9) Confidence 0.45 Published 1995 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8750842 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Effect of ppENK deficiency on supraspinal pain behavior
Regulation (Effect) of Gene_expression (deficiency) of ppENK associated with pain
10) Confidence 0.44 Published 2008 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2569012 Disease Relevance 1.03 Pain Relevance 1.40
Here we review regulation of proenkephalin gene expression in the hypothalamus.
Regulation (regulation) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin gene in hypothalamus
11) Confidence 0.34 Published 1995 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 7573416 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.17
Opioids modulate stress-induced proenkephalin gene expression in the hypothalamus of transgenic mice: a model of endogenous opioid gene regulation by exogenous opioids.
Regulation (modulate) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin gene in hypothalamus associated with targeted disruption, stress, endogenous opioid and opioid
12) Confidence 0.30 Published 1994 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Title Doc Link 7996174 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0.65
Further, we discuss the regulation of expression of two opioid peptides, preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin, in laminae I and II of the spinal cord and in nucleus caudalis of the trigeminal nuclear complex, where they may play a role in pain modulation. 4.
Regulation (regulation) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin in spinal cord associated with pain, opioid and spinal cord
13) Confidence 0.27 Published 1990 Journal Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 1970758 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.53
Effects of acute "binge" cocaine on preprodynorphin, preproenkephalin, proopiomelanocortin, and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor mRNA levels in the striatum and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of mu-opioid receptor knockout mice.
Regulation (Effects) of Gene_expression (levels) of preproenkephalin in striatum associated with targeted disruption, enkephalin, opioid receptor and cocaine
14) Confidence 0.22 Published 2002 Journal Synapse Section Title Doc Link 12125043 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.81
Significant basal changes were restricted to higher levels of prodynorphin in the ventrolateral striatum and lower prodynorphin and preproenkephalin mRNA expression in the hippocampus and/or in subregions of the hypothalamus.
Regulation (ventrolateral) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin mRNA in hippocampus associated with hippocampus
15) Confidence 0.21 Published 2004 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 15223370 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0.19
Preproenkephalin mRNA expression by striatopallidal neurons was unchanged at 48 h, but increased by 44% at 120 h.
Neg (unchanged) Regulation (unchanged) of Gene_expression (expression) of Preproenkephalin in neurons
16) Confidence 0.18 Published 2001 Journal Exp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11161620 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.53
Role of mu-opioid receptor in modulation of preproenkephalin mRNA expression and opioid and dopamine receptor binding in methamphetamine-sensitized mice.
Regulation (modulation) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin mRNA associated with dopamine receptor, enkephalin, opioid receptor and opioid
17) Confidence 0.15 Published 2007 Journal J. Neurosci. Res. Section Title Doc Link 17139685 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.77
Alterations in the levels of expression of preproenkephalin and preprotachykinin mRNA may be direct or indirect effects of the HD mutation.
Regulation (Alterations) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin associated with disease
18) Confidence 0.13 Published 1995 Journal Ann. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 8526457 Disease Relevance 0.65 Pain Relevance 0.05
The lack of correlation between peptide levels and the relative abundance of the Enk mRNA suggests that translational and (or) post-translational mechanisms are important in the control of the expression of the Enk gene in the heart of hamsters.
Regulation (control) of Gene_expression (expression) of Enk gene in heart
19) Confidence 0.13 Published 1991 Journal Biochem. Cell Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 1793557 Disease Relevance 0.11 Pain Relevance 0.07
This study tested the hypothesis that testosterone and/or season modulate preproenkephalin mRNA expression in specific areas of the hypothalamus.
Regulation (modulate) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin in hypothalamus
20) Confidence 0.13 Published 2003 Journal Biol. Reprod. Section Abstract Doc Link 12930728 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.19

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