INT60436

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Context Info
Confidence 0.37
First Reported 1993
Last Reported 2011
Negated 4
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 76
Total Number 76
Disease Relevance 84.22
Pain Relevance 9.08

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Anatomy Link Frequency
lung 6
respiratory 3
sputum 3
pulmonary artery 3
eosinophils 2
COPD (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Inflammation 1457 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
cva 127 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
corticosteroid 268 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
metalloproteinase 142 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 146 98.88 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 319 98.48 Very High Very High Very High
tolerance 98 96.32 Very High Very High Very High
adenocard 40 95.92 Very High Very High Very High
Restless leg syndrome 1 94.64 High High
fibrosis 45 94.60 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pulmonary Disease 4618 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 1602 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Asthma 783 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 653 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dyspnea 355 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Respiratory Failure 334 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Death 131 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pulmonary Embolism 102 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection 90 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Congenital Anomalies 32 100.00 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In an attempt to find a suitable pharmacologic method of reducing pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance in COPD, we enrolled 13 stable pulmonary-hypertensive, hypoxemic COPD patients in a study to test the effects of felodipine, a relatively new, vascular-selective calcium antagonist.
Negative_regulation (reducing) of COPD in pulmonary artery associated with pulmonary disease, antagonist and hypertension
1) Confidence 0.37 Published 1993 Journal Chest Section Abstract Doc Link 8486010 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.05
Reduction of pulmonary artery pressure in COPD by prolonged oxygen treatment has been shown to be associated with increased survival.
Negative_regulation (Reduction) of COPD in pulmonary artery associated with pulmonary disease
2) Confidence 0.37 Published 1993 Journal Chest Section Abstract Doc Link 8486010 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0.03
Thus, optimization of COPD therapy is the main step in treating insomnia in these patients.
Negative_regulation (optimization) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease and sleep disorders
3) Confidence 0.37 Published 2009 Journal Ther Adv Respir Dis Section Abstract Doc Link 19880428 Disease Relevance 1.52 Pain Relevance 0.14
Each year, the VA provides care for approximately 500,000 patients with a diagnosis of COPD,3 and COPD is among the most common discharge diagnoses from VA hospitals.4
Negative_regulation (diagnosis) of COPD associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
4) Confidence 0.36 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2866562 Disease Relevance 1.07 Pain Relevance 0
A study of 51,353 patients discharged after an exacerbation of COPD in the VA system identified pulmonary hypertension and weight loss as risk factors for death.6
Negative_regulation (exacerbation) of COPD associated with weight loss, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and death
5) Confidence 0.36 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2866562 Disease Relevance 1.52 Pain Relevance 0
Each year, the VA provides care for approximately 500,000 patients with a diagnosis of COPD,3 and COPD is among the most common discharge diagnoses from VA hospitals.4
Negative_regulation (diagnosis) of COPD associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
6) Confidence 0.36 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2866562 Disease Relevance 1.07 Pain Relevance 0
Data with current twice-daily LABAs in terms of preventing COPD exacerbations are mixed, with some studies showing no effect [30,31,48].
Negative_regulation (preventing) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease
7) Confidence 0.35 Published 2010 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2991288 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0.10
Smoking cessation improves respiratory symptoms and lung function decline in COPD, mostly within the first year after cessation [14,15], but interestingly bronchial airway inflammation persists or even worsens [16,17].
Negative_regulation (decline) of COPD in lung associated with pulmonary disease, nicotine addiction and inflammation
8) Confidence 0.35 Published 2007 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2214729 Disease Relevance 1.98 Pain Relevance 0.05
Additionally, patients should receive dietary counseling to ensure that adequate amount of calories are consumed each day and the diet is enriched for fruits, vegetables and fish, which may decrease COPD progression (Varraso et al 2007).


Negative_regulation (decrease) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease
9) Confidence 0.35 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2650603 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0
Definition of mild COPD
Negative_regulation (Definition) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease
10) Confidence 0.34 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2650603 Disease Relevance 1.81 Pain Relevance 0.03
Since the predominant effect of CO seems to be a reduction of eosinophils, asthma and COPD exacerbations could be more appropriate indications.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of COPD in eosinophils associated with asthma and pulmonary disease
11) Confidence 0.31 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2629961 Disease Relevance 1.12 Pain Relevance 0.24
Lung hyperinflation and excessive expiratory muscle recruitment can impair venous return and reduce right ventricular preload in COPD (Mahler et al 1984; Miller, Pegelow, et al 2005).
Negative_regulation (reduce) of COPD in muscle associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
12) Confidence 0.31 Published 2006 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2707802 Disease Relevance 0.86 Pain Relevance 0.04
With the exception of smoking cessation, no intervention has been shown to decrease the rate of FEV1 decline in COPD [53].
Negative_regulation (decline) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease and nicotine addiction
13) Confidence 0.31 Published 2009 Journal The Open Respiratory Medicine Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2684714 Disease Relevance 0.46 Pain Relevance 0.10
Tiotropium significantly improves bronchodilation, hyperinflation, dyspnea, health status, exacerbations and mortality in COPD patients, but it does not decrease the rate of FEV1 decline in COPD.


Negative_regulation (decline) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease and dyspnea
14) Confidence 0.31 Published 2009 Journal The Open Respiratory Medicine Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2684714 Disease Relevance 1.52 Pain Relevance 0.12
Particularly in elderly COPD patients, sleep quality is decreased in the form of morning tiredness and early awakenings (Bellia et al 2003).
Negative_regulation (decreased) of COPD associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and fatigue
15) Confidence 0.31 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2650593 Disease Relevance 1.56 Pain Relevance 0.03
A key message from the National COPD Patient survey [8] was the need to prioritise personalized COPD planning and self management.
Negative_regulation (prioritise) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease
16) Confidence 0.31 Published 2011 Journal Trials Section Body Doc Link PMC3024953 Disease Relevance 0.90 Pain Relevance 0.04
The role of pressure support in severely limited COPD patients is not yet clear.
Negative_regulation (limited) of COPD associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
17) Confidence 0.31 Published 2006 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2707802 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.09
It has been thought to be helpful in some patients, but although a reduction in oxygen cost of breathing has been noted [29], the approach has been associated with both an increased sensation of breathlessness and reduced mechanical efficiency in severe COPD [30,31] and is not recommended for routine use in the recent British Thoracic Society/Association for Chartered Physiotherapist in Respiratory Care(BTS/ACPRC) guidelines on "Physiotherapy management of the adult, medical, spontaneously breathing patient" [12].
Negative_regulation (reduced) of COPD in Thoracic associated with pulmonary disease and dyspnea
18) Confidence 0.31 Published 2010 Journal BMC Pulm Med Section Body Doc Link PMC2920262 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.06
Neutrophilic inflammation in sputum has been associated with both airflow obstruction and FEV1 decline in COPD [67].
Negative_regulation (decline) of COPD in sputum associated with pulmonary disease and inflammation
19) Confidence 0.30 Published 2007 Journal Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol Section Body Doc Link PMC2873624 Disease Relevance 2.61 Pain Relevance 0.52
Most clinical studies predefine asthma and COPD based on a single dimension, for example, variable airflow obstruction in asthma or fixed airflow obstruction in COPD.
Negative_regulation (predefine) of COPD associated with asthma and inflammation
20) Confidence 0.30 Published 2007 Journal Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol Section Body Doc Link PMC2873624 Disease Relevance 2.07 Pain Relevance 0.32

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