INT61893

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Context Info
Confidence 0.75
First Reported 1995
Last Reported 2010
Negated 4
Speculated 6
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 125
Total Number 184
Disease Relevance 71.49
Pain Relevance 15.14

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Ghrl) extracellular region (Ghrl) cytoplasm (Ghrl)
Anatomy Link Frequency
plasma 13
pituitary 9
stomach 5
hypothalamus 5
brain 5
Ghrl (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
cytokine 555 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Central nervous system 64 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 6 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
calcitonin gene related peptide 3 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
nud 375 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Potency 60 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
antidepressant 90 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 1416 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Serotonin 81 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Intracerebroventricular 10 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Obesity 1847 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 1065 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 539 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Repression 335 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Necrosis 157 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dyspepsia 375 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis 32 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 1539 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Neuroendocrine Cancer 55 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperphagia 60 99.68 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The expression of proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1beta), ghrelin, peroxisome proliferator receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and heat-shock protein (HSP70) was assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot.
Gene_expression (expression) of ghrelin associated with shock and cytokine
1) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal J. Physiol. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 20224150 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.22
The exposure to WRS was accompanied by an increase in gastric mucosal expression of IL-1beta, ghrelin, PPARgamma, HSP70 and COX-2.
Gene_expression (expression) of ghrelin associated with stress
2) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal J. Physiol. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 20224150 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.21
Expression of ghrelin and TNF-alpha was assessed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in the colonic mucosal biopsies from UC patients and healthy controls.
Gene_expression (Expression) of ghrelin associated with inflammatory bowel disease
3) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal J. Physiol. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19617644 Disease Relevance 0.99 Pain Relevance 0.22
The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of ghrelin and leptin in pancreatitis of different severities and the relation of these hormones with blood glucose level and proinflammatory cytokines.
Spec (investigate) Gene_expression (levels) of ghrelin in blood associated with pancreatitis and cytokine
4) Confidence 0.75 Published 2007 Journal Dig. Dis. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 17333355 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.10
We conclude that serum leptin and ghrelin levels increase in the first 48 hr of AEP and ANP.
Gene_expression (levels) of ghrelin associated with pancreatitis and acute necrotizing pancreatitis
5) Confidence 0.75 Published 2007 Journal Dig. Dis. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 17333355 Disease Relevance 1.65 Pain Relevance 0.09
As the serum ghrelin levels in ANP are higher than in AEP, it can be used as a marker to show the severity of pancreatitis.
Gene_expression (levels) of ghrelin associated with pancreatitis and acute necrotizing pancreatitis
6) Confidence 0.75 Published 2007 Journal Dig. Dis. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 17333355 Disease Relevance 1.53 Pain Relevance 0.09
The expression of cNOS, CGRP, HIF-1alpha, VEGF and ghrelin was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or Western blot.
Gene_expression (expression) of ghrelin associated with calcitonin gene related peptide
7) Confidence 0.75 Published 2006 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 16581065 Disease Relevance 1.09 Pain Relevance 0.60
However, in addition to stimulating GH secretion, ghrelin possesses several other endocrine and extraendocrine biological activities that are explained by the widespread distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a expression.
Gene_expression (expression) of ghrelin
8) Confidence 0.75 Published 2005 Journal J. Endocrinol. Invest. Section Abstract Doc Link 16370568 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.13
These scientists concluded that short sleep deprivation in young, healthy males was associated with decreased leptin levels and increased ghrelin levels, with subsequent increased hunger and appetite [124].


Gene_expression (levels) of ghrelin associated with sleep disorders
9) Confidence 0.75 Published 2005 Journal J Int Soc Sports Nutr Section Body Doc Link PMC2129146 Disease Relevance 1.34 Pain Relevance 0
Unacylated ghrelin competes with acylghrelin for GHS-R1a to a negligible degree, namely, with a kd of 13??
Gene_expression (competes) of ghrelin
10) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0
The aim of the present study was: 1) to examine the expression of ghrelin and TNF-alpha mRNA in the inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 2) to analyze the effect of treatment with exogenous ghrelin on the healing of trinitrobenze sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats, and 3) to assess the effects of ghrelin treatment on mRNA expression for iNOS and protein expression for COX-2 and PPARalpha in intact colonic mucosa and in that with TNBS-induced colitis.
Spec (examine) Gene_expression (expression) of ghrelin associated with colitis and inflammatory bowel disease
11) Confidence 0.65 Published 2009 Journal J. Physiol. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19617644 Disease Relevance 0.75 Pain Relevance 0.13
Whole cell recording revealed that ghrelin depolarizes PPT neurons dose-dependently in normal artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF).
Gene_expression (depolarizes) of ghrelin in ACSF
12) Confidence 0.65 Published 2009 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 19118591 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.22
However, in addition to stimulating GH secretion, ghrelin possesses several other endocrine and extraendocrine biological activities that are explained by the widespread distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a expression.
Gene_expression (expression) of ghrelin
13) Confidence 0.65 Published 2005 Journal J. Endocrinol. Invest. Section Abstract Doc Link 16370568 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.13
An endogenous ligand for the GHS receptor, acylghrelin, was identified in 1999.
Gene_expression (receptor) of ghrelin
14) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 0.11 Pain Relevance 0
Regarding antipsychotic treatment for example, it was reported that olanzapine would increase plasma ghrelin levels in patients with schizophrenia [59] and that acute administration of clozapin increases circulating plasma ghrelin levels in rats [58].
Gene_expression (levels) of ghrelin in plasma associated with schizophrenia
15) Confidence 0.65 Published 2008 Journal Current Neuropharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2687935 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.12
The levels of blood sugar, lipase, serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), ghrelin, and leptin were investigated and histopathologic examination was performed.
Spec (investigated) Gene_expression (levels) of ghrelin in blood associated with necrosis and cancer
16) Confidence 0.65 Published 2007 Journal Dig. Dis. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 17333355 Disease Relevance 1.34 Pain Relevance 0.18
Regarding antipsychotic treatment for example, it was reported that olanzapine would increase plasma ghrelin levels in patients with schizophrenia [59] and that acute administration of clozapin increases circulating plasma ghrelin levels in rats [58].
Gene_expression (levels) of ghrelin in plasma associated with schizophrenia
17) Confidence 0.65 Published 2008 Journal Current Neuropharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2687935 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.06
Ghrelin (Ghr) is an appetite stimulating hormone that is produced peripherally, by the stomach, and centrally as well.
Gene_expression (produced) of Ghrelin in stomach
18) Confidence 0.65 Published 2007 Journal Regul. Pept. Section Abstract Doc Link 17189653 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.37
Although ghrelin and the ghrelin receptor are known to be expressed in the guinea-pig gastrointestinal tract, the effects of ghrelin on gastric motility have not been examined.
Gene_expression (expressed) of ghrelin
19) Confidence 0.62 Published 2010 Journal Neurogastroenterol. Motil. Section Abstract Doc Link 19840269 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.07
We are aware of only one other study that examines the effects on mood of manipulations to ghrelin expression [15].
Gene_expression (expression) of ghrelin
20) Confidence 0.61 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915752 Disease Relevance 0.58 Pain Relevance 0.21

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