INT63296

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Context Info
Confidence 0.60
First Reported 1996
Last Reported 2009
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 3
Total Number 12
Disease Relevance 1.39
Pain Relevance 0.42

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Anatomy Link Frequency
cortex 2
neurons 1
inferior 1
TRGV9 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
thoracic epidural anesthesia 2 84.28 Quite High
tolerance 15 84.00 Quite High
anesthesia 32 82.56 Quite High
headache 3 58.64 Quite High
Dopamine 1 37.44 Quite Low
behavioral therapy 10 35.68 Quite Low
imagery 10 27.20 Quite Low
addiction 10 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Thalamus 10 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
abdominal pain 8 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Bundle-branch Block 1 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Inferior Wall Myocardial Infarction 1 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
Arrhythmias 2 Under Development 1 89.48 High High
Scotoma 50 89.04 High High
Pressure Volume 2 Under Development 1 88.32 High High
Stomach Cancer 1 80.12 Quite High
Myocardial Infarction 1 75.00 Quite High
Disorder Of Lipid Metabolism 10 74.04 Quite High
Ganglion Cysts 10 69.36 Quite High
Headache 3 58.64 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
It remains to be seen however whether Pulvinar input is capable of activating area V2, V3 neurons in the absence of V1 input.
Spec (whether) Positive_regulation (activating) of V2 in neurons
1) Confidence 0.60 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2677457 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Surprisingly, the retinotopic organization inside the LPZ of areas V2, V3 remained similar to that of the non-lesioned hemisphere, suggesting that LPZ activation in V2, V3 is not the result of input arising from nearby (non-lesioned) V1 cortex.
Positive_regulation (activation) of V2 in cortex
2) Confidence 0.60 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2677457 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0
Finally, we would like to note that time elapsed following the lesion may turn out to be of critical essence: Although our results suggest that activation levels in V2 and V3 remain stable from 1 to 22 months post-lesioning, when compared to the results of transient inactivation studies [1], [3], [25] they also suggest that plasticity processes operating within the first month post lesion likely play a role in modulating the gain of cortical networks responsible for the observed activity.
Positive_regulation (activation) of V2
3) Confidence 0.43 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2677457 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
In order to quantify the strength of visual stimulation inside the area V2, V3 LPZs (Figure 3), the amplitude of the mean BOLD signal over the LPZ at the stimulation frequency (f0) minus the mean amplitude in the noiseband (excluding the stimulation frequency) was normalized using a retinotopically matched control ROI in the intact hemisphere:
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of V2
4) Confidence 0.43 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2677457 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
We conclude that the observed activity patterns are largely mediated by parallel, V1-bypassing, subcortical pathways that can activate areas V2 and V3 in the absence of V1 input.
Positive_regulation (activate) of V2
5) Confidence 0.40 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2677457 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0
The strongest argument that V1-bypassing subcortical channels must be involved in generating the observed V2, V3 activity is provided by multi-unit receptive field maps recorded inside the V2 LPZ (Figure 8).
Positive_regulation (generating) of V2
6) Confidence 0.40 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2677457 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0
As expected, prior to lesioning the entire central sectors of areas V1, V2, and V3 were strongly activated by the retinotopic stimulus.
Positive_regulation (activated) of V2
7) Confidence 0.38 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2677457 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
During the pre-lesion experiments visual stimulation with an expanding ring paradigm resulted in strong and reliable activation of the entire visual cortex (areas V1, V2, V3, V4, V5/MT) with single voxel coherence levels >0.7 and z-scores usually reaching values of >15 (Figure 2A).
Positive_regulation (activation) of V2 in cortex
8) Confidence 0.35 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2677457 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0
A 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed complete right bundle branch block and elevation of the ST-segment from leads II, III, aVF, V1, and V2 which indicated an inferior myocardial infarction.
Positive_regulation (elevation) of V2 in inferior associated with bundle-branch block and inferior wall myocardial infarction
9) Confidence 0.30 Published 1996 Journal Masui Section Abstract Doc Link 8725600 Disease Relevance 0.59 Pain Relevance 0.32
In any event, we can conclude that: 1) as expected, area V2, V3 activity is strongly dependent on area V1 input, yet 2) both areas V2 and V3 can be visually modulated even in the absence of retinotopically corresponding V1 input.
Positive_regulation (dependent) of V2
10) Confidence 0.18 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2677457 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
By contrast, results describing the function of visual areas V2 and V3 after long-standing V1 lesions are limited: 1) there are no electrophysiological studies addressing directly this issue in monkeys, and 2) neuroimaging studies of human “blindsight” patients have not produced definitive results: On the one hand, the fMRI study of hemianopic patients FS and GY by Goebel et al., appears to confirm results from primate electrophysiology suggesting that visually driven activity in areas V2, V3 is strictly dependent on V1 input [29].
Positive_regulation (dependent) of V2
11) Confidence 0.18 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2677457 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
At visit V2, vitamin D increased level was statistically higher in the test than in the control group (Wilcoxon test; p = 0.0159), while at visit V3, vitamin C was significantly increased over control (ANOVA; p = 0.0324) (Table 4).
Positive_regulation (increased) of V2
12) Confidence 0.05 Published 2009 Journal Nutr J Section Body Doc Link PMC2657159 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0.10

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