INT65356

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Context Info
Confidence 0.79
First Reported 1996
Last Reported 2011
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 46
Total Number 46
Disease Relevance 41.17
Pain Relevance 5.43

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (LEP) extracellular region (LEP) lipid metabolic process (LEP)
Anatomy Link Frequency
adipose tissue 9
adipocytes 7
fat 4
brain 3
macrophage 1
LEP (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
cytokine 157 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cholecystokinin 8 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoarthritis 66 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
primary somatosensory cortex 53 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Somatosensory cortex 9 99.32 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 118 98.74 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 679 98.52 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammatory mediators 76 97.76 Very High Very High Very High
nociceptor 4 95.84 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 26 95.42 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Obesity 1831 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pulmonary Disease 382 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hypertension 135 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 83 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Overnutrition 42 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Necrosis 30 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Insulin Resistance 173 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Metabolic Syndrome 341 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Infection 61 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoarthritis 64 99.74 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Leptin is a 167 amino acid hormone discovered in 1994 that is almost exclusively produced by adipose tissue and possibly secreted by a constitutive mechanism.
Localization (secreted) of Leptin in adipose tissue associated with obesity
1) Confidence 0.79 Published 2006 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1993994 Disease Relevance 1.70 Pain Relevance 0.04
Leptin is secreted by fat - the more fat, the more leptin - yet it is named for the Greek word leptos, which means "thin."
Localization (secreted) of Leptin in fat
2) Confidence 0.77 Published 2010 Journal Lipids Health Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC2836327 Disease Relevance 1.08 Pain Relevance 0.03
Leptin is secreted by fat - the more fat, the more leptin - yet it is named for the Greek word leptos, which means "thin."
Localization (secreted) of leptin in fat
3) Confidence 0.77 Published 2010 Journal Lipids Health Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC2836327 Disease Relevance 1.14 Pain Relevance 0.06
It has been demonstrated that leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, is an integral component of the homeostatic loop of body weight regulation.
Localization (secreted) of leptin in body associated with body weight and obesity
4) Confidence 0.77 Published 1999 Journal Cancer Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 10493494 Disease Relevance 1.49 Pain Relevance 0.10
In conclusion, leptin release is suppressed in tuberculosis and
Localization (release) of leptin associated with mycobacterial infection
5) Confidence 0.77 Published 2007 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC1804295 Disease Relevance 0.81 Pain Relevance 0.04
The elevated leptin concentrations seen in obese hypertensive humans are mainly due to abdominal adipose tissue secretion.
Localization (secretion) of leptin in adipose tissue associated with hypertension and obesity
6) Confidence 0.74 Published 2006 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1993994 Disease Relevance 1.26 Pain Relevance 0
identify the LEP localization in the sensor space and focus on the analysis on one specific channel (in contrast to the analysis of all channels in the
Localization (localization) of LEP
7) Confidence 0.72 Published 2007 Journal Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience Section Body Doc Link PMC2271124 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.07
Eleveted leptin
Localization (Eleveted) of leptin
8) Confidence 0.71 Published 2007 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC1804295 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.03
The relationship of leptin to weight loss, energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity has been characterized [3,46,47].
Localization (sensitivity) of leptin associated with overnutrition
9) Confidence 0.71 Published 2009 Journal Nutr Metab (Lond) Section Body Doc Link PMC2693519 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0
For example, leptin, which is released in proportion to adipose tissue amount, acts on hypothalamic circuits to reduce energy intake and increase energy expenditure [42].
Localization (released) of leptin in adipose tissue associated with obesity
10) Confidence 0.69 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Obesity Section Body Doc Link PMC2925323 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0
The activation of the SNS with sleep restriction is one possibility since increased SNS activity inhibits the release of leptin from adipose tissue and may inhibit insulin release [51].
Localization (release) of leptin in adipose tissue associated with obesity
11) Confidence 0.69 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Obesity Section Body Doc Link PMC2925323 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0
The degree of recovery of pain sensitivity upon reexamination was reflected by the extent of normalization of the LEP.
Localization (normalization) of LEP associated with pain
12) Confidence 0.69 Published 1996 Journal J Clin Neurophysiol Section Abstract Doc Link 8858495 Disease Relevance 0.75 Pain Relevance 0.42
To overcome the limitations of human studies, a primate model is needed in which the main LEP generator in this region can be localized and characterized using invasive methods.
Localization (localized) of LEP
13) Confidence 0.68 Published 2006 Journal J. Neurophysiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 16899640 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.24
promote release of leptin from adipose tissue [79] but leptin may per se up-regulate expression of proinflammatory cytokines [80].
Localization (release) of leptin in adipose tissue associated with obesity and cytokine
14) Confidence 0.68 Published 2010 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2857618 Disease Relevance 1.46 Pain Relevance 0.13
According to McTernan et al. [17], adipose tissue plays a prominent role in the clinical expression of metabolic syndrome, most likely mediated by the increased release and peripheral tissue action of non-esterified fatty acids and by the dysregulated production of adipocyte-secreted proteins, including leptin, adiponectin, resistin, TNF-?
Localization (secreted) of leptin in adipocyte associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome
15) Confidence 0.61 Published 2009 Journal Lipids Health Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC2651880 Disease Relevance 1.20 Pain Relevance 0
However, chronic or frequent stress can desensitise the HPA axis such that cortisol remains elevated; over time this can lead to an increase in visceral body fat since cortisol promotes fat accumulation and also inhibits the release of leptin [49, 50, 58].
Localization (release) of leptin in fat associated with stress
16) Confidence 0.60 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Obesity Section Body Doc Link PMC2925323 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0
promote release of leptin from adipose tissue [79] but leptin may per se up-regulate expression of proinflammatory cytokines [80].
Localization (release) of leptin in adipose tissue associated with obesity and cytokine
17) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2857618 Disease Relevance 1.52 Pain Relevance 0.13
Adipocytes express and secrete a variety of adipokines including cytokines, growth factors, adiponectin, resistin, adipsin, leptin, acylation stimulating protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), lipoprotein lipase, and components of the renin-angiotensin system which may exert local (autocrine/paracrine) and systemic (endocrine) effects [67–69].

5.2.

Localization (secrete) of leptin in Adipocytes associated with obesity and cytokine
18) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2857618 Disease Relevance 1.48 Pain Relevance 0.13
Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, is a signal to the brain to indicate high or low energy reserves [39], and its action both in the brain and on taste tissues may influence our need and preferences for energy-dense foods, including sweets (further discussed below under Biology and Genetics of Sweet Taste).
Localization (secreted) of Leptin in brain associated with obesity
19) Confidence 0.54 Published 2006 Journal BMC Oral Health Section Body Doc Link PMC2147592 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.12
Iacobellis et al. [75] reported that TSH and BMI were positively related and TSH has been found to be correlated with leptin adjusted for BMI.
Localization (correlated) of leptin associated with obesity
20) Confidence 0.54 Published 2005 Journal J Int Soc Sports Nutr Section Body Doc Link PMC2129146 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0

General Comments

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