INT6558

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1989
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 2
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 56
Total Number 58
Disease Relevance 9.64
Pain Relevance 30.89

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (Th) mitochondrion (Th) nucleus (Th)
response to stress (Th) cytoplasm (Th)
Anatomy Link Frequency
PVN 12
striatum 8
astrocytes 8
neurons 6
adrenal medulla 6
Th (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dopamine 184 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
noradrenaline 18 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cholecystokinin 13 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cannabinoid 8 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
adenocard 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nicotine 9 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 143 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 35 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
withdrawal 82 99.78 Very High Very High Very High
Ventral tegmentum 27 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Stress 46 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Pressure Volume 2 Under Development 1 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine Dependence 16 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 6 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
Sprains And Strains 2 98.86 Very High Very High Very High
Decapitation 5 98.12 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 9 97.56 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 104 97.32 Very High Very High Very High
Body Weight 26 95.28 Very High Very High Very High
Neurodegenerative Disease 16 95.04 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In toto these observations suggest that transsynaptic nerve impulse activity and sympathetic neuron membrane depolarization decrease SS synthesis but increase TH synthesis at the mRNA level.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (synthesis) of TH in nerve
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 1989 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2564623 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.14
In addition, repeated morphine also increased the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the VTA after 4 days of morphine pretreatment, while decreasing the expression of dynorphin mRNA at 3 days after withdrawal.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA associated with dynorphin, withdrawal and morphine
2) Confidence 0.70 Published 2007 Journal Eur Neuropsychopharmacol Section Abstract Doc Link 17604969 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.68
In the carotid body, nicotine increased TH mRNA expression in animals at 0 and 3 postnatal days (both, P < 0.05 vs. control) without affecting TH mRNA levels at 6 and 15 days.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of TH mRNA in carotid body associated with nicotine
3) Confidence 0.69 Published 2001 Journal J. Appl. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11641357 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0.62
The MTZ induction of c-fos appears neither sufficient nor always necessary for the subsequent MTZ induction of Penk and TH gene expression.
Positive_regulation (induction) of Gene_expression (expression) of TH gene
4) Confidence 0.68 Published 1993 Journal Mol. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 8102782 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.11
Cycloheximide increases proenkephalin and tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in rat adrenal medulla.
Positive_regulation (increases) of Gene_expression (expression) of tyrosine hydroxylase in adrenal medulla associated with medulla and enkephalin
5) Confidence 0.66 Published 2000 Journal Mol. Pharmacol. Section Title Doc Link 10825388 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.41
Astrocytes secreting high levels of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) have been generated by retrovirus-mediated transfer of the human tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene.
Positive_regulation (transfer) of Gene_expression (transfer) of TH in Astrocytes
6) Confidence 0.64 Published 1996 Journal Exp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 8635567 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.06
The chronic morphine-induced increases in ERK activity and TH expression in the VTA also were blocked by local infusion of NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists, suggesting a role for glutamate in mediating these drug effects.
Positive_regulation (increases) of Gene_expression (expression) of TH associated with ventral tegmentum, glutamate, antagonist, glutamate receptor and morphine
7) Confidence 0.61 Published 1996 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 8764658 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 1.24
In order to determine the overall metabolic state of mesencephalic and striatal neurons during the period of up-regulation of TH gene expression, we have applied immunocytochemistry for neuron specific enolase (NSE), and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry, known markers for neuronal activity, as well as TH immunohistochemistry to the mesencephalon and striatum of postnatally developing rats.
Positive_regulation (up-regulation) of Gene_expression (expression) of TH gene in striatum
8) Confidence 0.61 Published 1992 Journal Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 1330370 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.33
In conclusion, the results suggest that an acute dose of ethanol induces neuroplastic alterations in proenkephalin, tyrosine hydroxylase and cannabinoid CB1 receptor gene expressions that may contribute to trigger the rewarding effects of ethanol consumption.
Positive_regulation (induces) of Gene_expression (expressions) of tyrosine hydroxylase associated with cannabinoid
9) Confidence 0.57 Published 2008 Journal Eur Neuropsychopharmacol Section Abstract Doc Link 17964122 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.46
At nonpermissive temperature (39 degrees C), these cells stop proliferating, decrease Tag expression, and change the expression of TH-, DbetaH-, and PNMT-ir in vitro, suggesting increased differentiation at nonpermissive temperature.
Positive_regulation (change) of Gene_expression (expression) of TH
10) Confidence 0.57 Published 2000 Journal J. Cell. Biochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 10906754 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.44
The expression of TH-ir in the bovine chromaffin cells is upregulated by the addition of dexamethasone (DEX) or forskolin during differentiation; TH-ir is not affected by the addition of DEX or forskolin in the rat chromaffin cells.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of Gene_expression (expression) of TH in chromaffin cells associated with dexamethasone
11) Confidence 0.57 Published 2000 Journal J. Cell. Biochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 10906754 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.45
Repeated stress elevated expression of all the genes studied and increased TH immunoreactivity in both ganglia.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of Gene_expression (expression) of TH in ganglia associated with stress
12) Confidence 0.53 Published 1996 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 8940389 Disease Relevance 0.58 Pain Relevance 0.31
Nicotinic induction of preproenkephalin and tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in butyrate-differentiated rat PC12 cells: a model for adaptation to gut-derived environmental signals.
Positive_regulation (induction) of Gene_expression (expression) of tyrosine hydroxylase in gut
13) Confidence 0.50 Published 2007 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 17174279 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.21
The present findings demonstrate that the enhancement of total TH expression and the increase of the phosphorylation state of TH during morphine withdrawal are dependent on PKA and ERK and suggest that these transduction pathways might contribute to the activation of the cardiac catecholaminergic neurons in response to morphine- withdrawal.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (expression) of TH in neurons associated with withdrawal and morphine
14) Confidence 0.50 Published 2009 Journal Basic Res. Cardiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19104749 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.03
The present findings demonstrate that the enhancement of total TH expression and the increase of the phosphorylation state of TH during morphine withdrawal are dependent on PKA and ERK and suggest that these transduction pathways might contribute to the activation of the cardiac catecholaminergic neurons in response to morphine- withdrawal.
Positive_regulation (enhancement) of Gene_expression (expression) of TH in neurons associated with withdrawal and morphine
15) Confidence 0.50 Published 2009 Journal Basic Res. Cardiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19104749 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.08
Mutagenesis of the TH E1 sequence within the normal context of the TH gene proximal promoter leads to a 50% decrease in the cyclic AMP inducibility of the promoter.
Positive_regulation (leads) of Gene_expression (Mutagenesis) of TH gene in proximal
16) Confidence 0.50 Published 1995 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 7595476 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0
Mutagenesis of the TH E1 sequence within the normal context of the TH gene proximal promoter leads to a 50% decrease in the cyclic AMP inducibility of the promoter.
Positive_regulation (leads) of Gene_expression (Mutagenesis) of TH in proximal
17) Confidence 0.50 Published 1995 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 7595476 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0
The present results suggest that an increase in TH protein levels and TH enzyme activity might contribute to the enhanced noradrenergic activity in the PVN in response to morphine withdrawal.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (levels) of TH in PVN associated with withdrawal and morphine
18) Confidence 0.50 Published 2003 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 12534973 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 1.38
The present results suggest that an increase in TH protein levels and TH enzyme activity might contribute to the enhanced noradrenergic activity in the PVN in response to morphine withdrawal.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (levels) of TH in PVN associated with withdrawal and morphine
19) Confidence 0.50 Published 2003 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 12534973 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 1.38
Metrazole induces the sequential activation of c-fos, proenkephalin, and tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in the rat adrenal gland: modulation by glucocorticoid and adrenocorticotropic hormone.
Positive_regulation (activation) of Gene_expression (expression) of tyrosine hydroxylase in adrenal gland associated with enkephalin
20) Confidence 0.49 Published 1993 Journal Mol. Pharmacol. Section Title Doc Link 8102782 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.36

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