INT6666

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Context Info
Confidence 0.58
First Reported 1984
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 30
Total Number 30
Disease Relevance 9.16
Pain Relevance 17.91

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (PENK) extracellular region (PENK)
Anatomy Link Frequency
putamen 3
dorsal 2
substantia nigra 2
SH-SY5Y 1
caudate nucleus 1
PENK (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 154 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 61 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 7 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid receptor 1 1 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
cocaine 32 99.58 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 70 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Substantia nigra 12 98.86 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 7 98.48 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate receptor 3 97.92 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 9 97.56 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Prostate Cancer 7 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Infarction 5 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 83 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors 6 98.92 Very High Very High Very High
Dementia 6 98.20 Very High Very High Very High
Toxicity 1 93.96 High High
Sleep Disorders 2 91.80 High High
Pain 55 90.16 High High
Death 3 88.60 High High
Cancer 32 88.32 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Reduction in enkephalin and substance P messenger RNA in the striatum of early grade Huntington's disease: a detailed cellular in situ hybridization study.
Negative_regulation (Reduction) of enkephalin in striatum associated with enkephalin, disease and substance p
1) Confidence 0.58 Published 1996 Journal Neuroscience Section Title Doc Link 8735227 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.81
A marked reduction in both enkephalin and substance P messenger RNAs was detected in all regions of the caudate nucleus and putamen in Huntington's disease grades 2/3 when compared to controls; in the dorsal caudate few enkephalin or substance P messenger RNA-positive cells were detected.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of enkephalin in putamen associated with enkephalin, disease and substance p
2) Confidence 0.58 Published 1996 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 8735227 Disease Relevance 0.69 Pain Relevance 1.00
For the early grade (0/1) Huntington's disease cases, a heterogeneous reduction in both enkephalin and substance P messenger RNAs were noted; for enkephalin messenger RNA the striatal autoradiograms displayed a conspicuous patchy appearance.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of enkephalin associated with enkephalin, disease and substance p
3) Confidence 0.58 Published 1996 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 8735227 Disease Relevance 0.64 Pain Relevance 1.20
Selective down-regulation of the pro-enkephalin gene during differentiation of a multiple neuropeptide-co-expressing cell line.
Negative_regulation (regulation) of enkephalin gene associated with neuropeptide and enkephalin
4) Confidence 0.58 Published 1990 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Title Doc Link 2211684 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.79
Endothelin-1 caused a decrease in proenkephalin mRNA to 50% of control levels at 4 h after treatment and had no effect on histone H4 mRNA over a 24 h period that was examined.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of proenkephalin
5) Confidence 0.57 Published 1992 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 1331650 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0
Specific RNA changes in htt171-82Q-expressing striatal cells accurately recapitulated those observed in human HD caudate and included decreases in PENK (proenkephalin), RGS4 (regulator of G-protein signaling 4), dopamine D(1) receptor (DRD1), DRD2, CNR1 (cannabinoid CB(1) receptor), and DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-32; also known as PPP1R1B) mRNAs.
Negative_regulation (decreases) of PENK associated with dopamine, cannabinoid and disease
6) Confidence 0.57 Published 2008 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 18815258 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 0.14
Long-term cocaine self-administration decreases striatal preproenkephalin mRNA in rhesus monkeys.
Negative_regulation (decreases) of preproenkephalin associated with enkephalin and cocaine
7) Confidence 0.51 Published 1997 Journal Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. Section Title Doc Link 9218271 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.51
Preproenkephalin mRNA was significantly reduced in widespread portions of both the dorsal and ventral striatum following chronic long-term cocaine self-administration when compared with levels in normal controls.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of Preproenkephalin in dorsal associated with cocaine
8) Confidence 0.43 Published 1997 Journal Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. Section Abstract Doc Link 9218271 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.33
Detailed cellular analysis of the dorsal caudate revealed a striking reduction in the number of enkephalin and substance P messenger RNA-positive cells detected and in the intensity of hybridization signal/cell.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of enkephalin in dorsal associated with enkephalin and substance p
9) Confidence 0.43 Published 1996 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 8735227 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 1.12
In contrast, the substantia nigra ipsilateral to the striato-pallidal infarction showed a decrease in substance P and enkephalin immunoreactivity which was proportional to the extent of the infarction.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of enkephalin in substantia nigra associated with substantia nigra, enkephalin, infarction and substance p
10) Confidence 0.43 Published 1984 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 6198046 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 1.00
Detection of enkephalin-like immunoreactive material in human saliva.
Negative_regulation (Detection) of enkephalin-like in saliva associated with enkephalin
11) Confidence 0.43 Published 1988 Journal Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry Section Title Doc Link 3387588 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.64
The results show that the enkephalin gene is selectively down-regulated during differentiation of neuroepithelioma cells.
Negative_regulation (down-regulated) of enkephalin gene associated with peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors and enkephalin
12) Confidence 0.42 Published 1990 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 2211684 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.69
Midregional Proenkephalin A and N-terminal Protachykinin A are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with dementia disorders and acute neuroinflammation.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of Proenkephalin A in cerebrospinal fluid associated with dementia and enkephalin
13) Confidence 0.42 Published 2010 Journal J. Neuroimmunol. Section Title Doc Link 20207019 Disease Relevance 0.91 Pain Relevance 0.44
Dynorphin A((1-17)) is produced by proteolytic processing of prodynorphin, and processing of proenkephalin yields the enkephalin peptides.
Negative_regulation (processing) of proenkephalin associated with dynorphin and enkephalin
14) Confidence 0.41 Published 2004 Journal Brain Res. Bull. Section Abstract Doc Link 15130700 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.29
METHODS: SH-SY5Y cells (passage 70-80) were used to obtain ketamine dose-response curves for inhibition of 0.4 nM [(3)H][D-Ala(2),MePhe(4),Gly(ol)(5)] enkephalin (DAMGO) binding to mu(2) opioid receptors and of forskolin (1 microM)-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of enkephalin in SH-SY5Y
15) Confidence 0.37 Published 1999 Journal J Anesth Section Body Doc Link 14530949 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
In Parkinson's disease there was a loss of enkephalin- and dynorphin-like immunoreactivity from the substantia nigra but a fall in substance P-like immunoreactivity was only detected by radioimmunoassay, not by immunocytochemistry.
Negative_regulation (loss) of enkephalin in substantia nigra associated with dynorphin, substantia nigra, enkephalin, disease and substance p
16) Confidence 0.36 Published 1988 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 2456487 Disease Relevance 0.46 Pain Relevance 0.69
Down-regulation of PENK in prostate cancer
Negative_regulation (regulation) of PENK associated with prostate cancer
17) Confidence 0.36 Published 2005 Journal BMC Urol Section Body Doc Link PMC1327674 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0.15
Breakdown of small enkephalin derivatives and adrenal peptide E by human plasma.
Negative_regulation (Breakdown) of enkephalin in plasma associated with enkephalin
18) Confidence 0.35 Published 1986 Journal Biochem. Pharmacol. Section Title Doc Link 3954793 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.07
The reduction in the beta-preprotachykinin/preproenkephalin mRNA ratio was more marked in cases with multiple small infarcts (status lacunaris) in the putamen.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of preproenkephalin mRNA in putamen
19) Confidence 0.34 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9369304 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.64
The enzyme activity was determined by column method using the labelled substrate (H-D-AlaLeu)--enkephalin and the selective enkephalin inhibitor--thiorfan in the presence of bestatin and captopril--inhibitors of aminopeptidases and angiotensin converting enzyme respectively.
Negative_regulation (inhibitor) of enkephalin associated with enkephalin
20) Confidence 0.34 Published 1994 Journal Wiad. Lek. Section Abstract Doc Link 8030341 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.20

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