INT67039

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Context Info
Confidence 0.65
First Reported 1996
Last Reported 2011
Negated 7
Speculated 4
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 144
Total Number 154
Disease Relevance 98.40
Pain Relevance 33.77

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

mitochondrion (Cpox) oxidoreductase activity (Cpox) cytoplasm (Cpox)
Anatomy Link Frequency
brain 6
neurons 6
muscle tissue 4
microglia 3
neuronal 3
Cpox (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Inflammation 1795 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammatory response 268 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
cerebral cortex 140 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
dopaminergic neurodegeneration 52 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 1008 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammatory stimuli 60 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Central nervous system 283 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
COX-2 inhibitor 438 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
cINOD 1112 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 44 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Disease 2742 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 2471 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 490 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Shock 30 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 680 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Renal Cancer 110 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Repression 14 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 1632 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 1146 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Pancreatic Cancer 601 99.84 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
COX-1 is constitutively expressed, whereas COX-2 is induced by proinflammatory stimuli.
Positive_regulation (induced) of COX
1) Confidence 0.65 Published 1999 Journal Anal. Biochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 10361000 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.26
These results suggest that induction of COX-2 by proinflammatory mediators and subsequent release of prostaglandins could be responsible for LPS enhancement of formalin-induced nocifensive behaviour and supports an important role of COX-2 in LPS-induced hyperalgesia in the formalin test.
Positive_regulation (induction) of COX associated with hyperalgesia
2) Confidence 0.54 Published 2005 Journal Indian J. Exp. Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 15691066 Disease Relevance 0.46 Pain Relevance 0.48
A single hepatotoxic dose caused the selective induction of COX-2 mRNA and increased PGD2 and PGE2 levels within the livers of COX(+/+) male mice suggesting a role for COX-2 in this model of liver injury.
Positive_regulation (induction) of COX in liver associated with injury
3) Confidence 0.52 Published 2001 Journal Chem. Res. Toxicol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11743745 Disease Relevance 0.62 Pain Relevance 0.28
While the development of selective inhibitors of inducible cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (so called coxibs) has greatly reduced gastrointestinal side effects, the recent disappointment about a potential cardiovascular toxicity of COX-2-selective inhibitors has boosted interest in alternative targets.
Positive_regulation (inducible) of COX associated with toxicity
4) Confidence 0.47 Published 2007 Journal Biochem. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 16959219 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.55
Inhibitory studies demonstrated an apparent increased sensitivity of COX activity to the action of inhibitors when measuring intracellular PGE2 compared with using cell culture supernatants.
Positive_regulation (increased) of COX
5) Confidence 0.47 Published 1999 Journal Anal. Biochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 10361000 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.40
This suggests that COX-2 may be a primary contributor to afferent evoked increase in prostanoid-mediated changes in pain processing.
Positive_regulation (increase) of COX associated with pain
6) Confidence 0.39 Published 1998 Journal Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 9885412 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 1.17
Prostaglandin E2 is a major metabolite of COX activation.
Positive_regulation (activation) of COX
7) Confidence 0.38 Published 1999 Journal Anal. Biochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 10361000 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.28
Microarray analyses indicated that increased injury associated with COX-2 deficiency coincided, most notably, with a profoundly impaired induction of heat shock proteins in COX-2(-/+) mice suggesting that PGs may act as critical endogenous stress signals following drug insult.
Positive_regulation (induction) of COX associated with stress, shock and injury
8) Confidence 0.37 Published 2001 Journal Chem. Res. Toxicol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11743745 Disease Relevance 0.83 Pain Relevance 0.22
COX-1 is responsible for the production of physiological levels of prostanoids, whereas COX-2 is upregulated during inflammatory states and produces prostanoids responsible for the generation of fever, pain or other inflammatory responses.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of COX associated with pain, inflammatory response, inflammation and fever
9) Confidence 0.34 Published 1998 Journal Masui Section Abstract Doc Link 9852696 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.40
Induction of acetaminophen-inhibitable prostaglandin E(2) synthesis parallels induction of COX-2.
Positive_regulation (induction) of COX associated with paracetamol
10) Confidence 0.32 Published 2000 Journal Clin. Infect. Dis. Section Abstract Doc Link 11113025 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 1.02
In cultured mouse aortic smooth muscle cells, estrogen exposure increased COX-2 expression and prostacyclin formation [4].
Positive_regulation (increased) of COX in smooth muscle cells
11) Confidence 0.31 Published 2006 Journal PLoS Clinical Trials Section Body Doc Link PMC1584256 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0.23
J774.2 cultured mouse macrophages treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce COX-2, were treated with varying concentrations of paracetamol and the PGs produced were measured.
Positive_regulation (induce) of COX in macrophages
12) Confidence 0.28 Published 2002 Journal Med. Sci. Monit. Section Body Doc Link 12503027 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
We have reported that estrogen dependent atheroprotection in mice depends in substantial part on COX-2 derived PGI2.
Positive_regulation (derived) of COX
13) Confidence 0.27 Published 2007 Journal PLoS Medicine Section Body Doc Link PMC1872041 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.18
As an underlying mechanism of COX-2 inhibition, these extracts diminished TPA-stimulated catalytic activity of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), which is known to regulate the activation of eukaryotic transcription factors mediating COX-2 induction.
Positive_regulation (induction) of COX
14) Confidence 0.26 Published 2005 Journal Cancer Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 15639337 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 0.19
In both types of mice induction of thermal hyperalgesia was accompanied by similar increases in COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA expression.
Positive_regulation (increases) of COX associated with thermal hyperalgesia
15) Confidence 0.25 Published 2000 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 10964977 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0.51
The expression of the other three genes (mitochondrial inner membrane protein, GABA transporter [GAT]3, and ring finger protein 24) changed in opposite directions (downregulated in COX-1-/- and upregulated in COX-2-/- mice), suggesting an isoform-specific effect on expression of these genes.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of COX in finger associated with gaba
16) Confidence 0.25 Published 2007 Journal Genome Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC1839133 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.20
COX enzymes exist in an inducible form COX-2, that has been found to be elevated in the AD brain, and a constitutive form COX-1.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of COX in brain associated with disease
17) Confidence 0.25 Published 2002 Journal J. Alzheimers Dis. Section Abstract Doc Link 12446975 Disease Relevance 1.50 Pain Relevance 0.75
Inducible cyclooxygenase COX-2 and selective blockers].
Positive_regulation (Inducible) of COX
18) Confidence 0.25 Published 1998 Journal Masui Section Title Doc Link 9852696 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0.34
Coxibs, such as rofecoxib, celecoxib, and valdecoxib, selectively inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, the mainly inducible, pro-inflammatory COX isoform.
Positive_regulation (inducible) of COX associated with inflammation
19) Confidence 0.23 Published 2005 Journal Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 16254252 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.55
We also observed that COX-2 is constitutively upregulated in papillomas and carcinomas from either chemical initiation-promotion or UV-irradiation carcinogenesis experiments.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of COX associated with non-genital cutaneous warts and carcinoma
20) Confidence 0.23 Published 2002 Journal J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. Section Abstract Doc Link 12086405 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0

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