INT68789

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Context Info
Confidence 0.51
First Reported 1997
Last Reported 2008
Negated 4
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 17
Total Number 18
Disease Relevance 4.76
Pain Relevance 3.98

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (CFP) extracellular region (CFP)
Anatomy Link Frequency
insular cortex 3
nucleus accumbens 2
STR 2
amygdala 1
PFC 1
CFP (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Nucleus accumbens 42 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
amygdala 23 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 320 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
cocaine 28 98.24 Very High Very High Very High
Spontaneous pain 2 96.88 Very High Very High Very High
imagery 82 95.88 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 71 95.20 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 56 94.00 High High
depression 10 93.64 High High
Anterior cingulate cortex 10 92.76 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 167 98.66 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 27 98.64 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperkinesis 4 98.08 Very High Very High Very High
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder 75 97.64 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 70 96.88 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 2 95.88 Very High Very High Very High
Brain Injury 15 94.92 High High
Depression 13 93.64 High High
Cv General 4 Under Development 7 90.08 High High
Cognitive Disorder 71 89.80 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The lesion control group, with damage predominantly affecting the dlPFC and/or vlPFC, showed comparable betting behaviour to healthy participants.
Regulation (affecting) of dlPFC
1) Confidence 0.51 Published 2008 Journal Brain Section Body Doc Link PMC2367692 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0
Thus, the second aim of the present study was to examine the effects of vmPFC lesions on decision-making under risk, using a test with known outcome probabilities.
Spec (examine) Regulation (effects) of vmPFC
2) Confidence 0.38 Published 2008 Journal Brain Section Body Doc Link PMC2367692 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.10
Interventions affecting vmPFC and insular cortex activation may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of neuropsychiatric conditions associated with abnormal decision-making.


Regulation (affecting) of vmPFC in insular cortex
3) Confidence 0.23 Published 2008 Journal Brain Section Body Doc Link PMC2367692 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.05
Differential effects of insular and ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions on risky decision-making

The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and insular cortex are implicated in distributed neural circuitry that supports emotional decision-making.

Regulation (effects) of vmPFC in neural
4) Confidence 0.23 Published 2008 Journal Brain Section Title Doc Link PMC2367692 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0
Fig. 6(A) Proportion of choices of the box colour ‘blue’ as a function of the number of red boxes in the array (1–9), in the vmPFC, insular cortex, lesion control and healthy control groups.
Regulation (control) of vmPFC in insular cortex
5) Confidence 0.23 Published 2008 Journal Brain Section Body Doc Link PMC2367692 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.04
These groups share pathology in the vmPFC; however, in none of these studies was the vmPFC selectively affected.
Regulation (affected) of vmPFC
6) Confidence 0.23 Published 2008 Journal Brain Section Body Doc Link PMC2367692 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.05
We hypothesized that patients with vmPFC and insular cortex lesions would both display increases in betting behaviour in comparison with healthy volunteers and a lesion control group with damage predominantly affecting the dorsolateral and ventrolateral PFC.


Regulation (affecting) of PFC in insular cortex
7) Confidence 0.23 Published 2008 Journal Brain Section Body Doc Link PMC2367692 Disease Relevance 0.11 Pain Relevance 0.03
According to Arnsten et al., the role of the D1 receptor family in the regulation of PFC function has received particular focus, particularly as D1 receptors are found in high concentration in the PFC on dendritic spines.
Regulation (regulation) of PFC in PFC
8) Confidence 0.20 Published 2008 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2289834 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0.22
Arnsten and Li suggest that noradrenergic transmission has a vital beneficial effect on PFC function, particularly via postsynaptic alpha-2-adrenoreceptors.
Regulation (effect) of PFC
9) Confidence 0.17 Published 2008 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2289834 Disease Relevance 0.21 Pain Relevance 0.35
Arnsten and Li have pointed out that the PFC guides behaviour, thought and affect using working memory, and that these processes are the basis of executive functions, including regulation of attention, planning and impulse control [75].
Regulation (affect) of PFC associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
10) Confidence 0.12 Published 2008 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2289834 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.34
Comparisons of the slopes of the regression equations showed differences between the effects in PFC and nucleus accumbens (t = 4.29; df = 56; P < .001) and PFC and STR (t = 4.56), but not between nucleus accumbens and STR.
Neg (not) Regulation (effects) of PFC in nucleus accumbens associated with nucleus accumbens
11) Confidence 0.09 Published 1997 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 9103547 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.27
Comparisons of the slopes of the regression equations showed differences between the effects in PFC and nucleus accumbens (t = 4.29; df = 56; P < .001) and PFC and STR (t = 4.56), but not between nucleus accumbens and STR.
Neg (not) Regulation (effects) of PFC in nucleus accumbens associated with nucleus accumbens
12) Confidence 0.09 Published 1997 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 9103547 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.24
A review of animal and human studies of pharmacological and therapeutic directions in ADHD suggests that the D1 receptor is a specific site for dopaminergic regulation of the PFC, but optimal levels of dopamine (DA) are required for beneficial effects on working memory.
Regulation (regulation) of PFC associated with dopamine and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
13) Confidence 0.08 Published 2008 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2289834 Disease Relevance 0.46 Pain Relevance 0.10
Dysregulation of the mPFC-amygdala axis would also be expected to contribute to other problems that are commonly observed to develop in combat veterans with PTSD, such as impulsivity, depression, and poor judgment.



Regulation (Dysregulation) of mPFC in amygdala associated with post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and amygdala
14) Confidence 0.07 Published 2008 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2526370 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.30
Comparisons of the slopes of the regression equations showed differences between the effects in PFC and nucleus accumbens (t = 4.29; df = 56; P < .001) and PFC and STR (t = 4.56), but not between nucleus accumbens and STR.
Neg (not) Regulation (effects) of PFC in STR associated with nucleus accumbens
15) Confidence 0.03 Published 1997 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 9103547 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.27
Comparisons of the slopes of the regression equations showed differences between the effects in PFC and nucleus accumbens (t = 4.29; df = 56; P < .001) and PFC and STR (t = 4.56), but not between nucleus accumbens and STR.
Neg (not) Regulation (effects) of PFC in STR associated with nucleus accumbens
16) Confidence 0.03 Published 1997 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 9103547 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.24
In support of this idea, Baliki et al. [109] have shown that the sustained spontaneous pain of CLBP is strongly associated with increased activity of the medial pre-frontal cortex (mPFC) and suggest that this is the result of a loss of inhibitory control of the mPFC from the DLPFC.
Regulation (control) of mPFC in frontal cortex associated with pain, spontaneous pain and urological neuroanatomy
17) Confidence 0.02 Published 2008 Journal BMC Musculoskelet Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC2266926 Disease Relevance 1.24 Pain Relevance 1.11
As a consequence, altered function of the aPFC could have important ramifications for decision-making capability in drug abusers.
Regulation (altered) of aPFC
18) Confidence 0.01 Published 2006 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC1762434 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0.29

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