INT7032

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Context Info
Confidence 0.66
First Reported 1982
Last Reported 2010
Negated 4
Speculated 4
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 94
Total Number 100
Disease Relevance 26.51
Pain Relevance 58.83

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

plasma membrane (Pdyn)
Anatomy Link Frequency
brain 5
spinal 5
striatum 4
spinal cord 4
CPu 3
Pdyn (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dynorphin 537 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 158 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 112 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
opioid receptor 40 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 38 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 37 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
dopamine receptor 15 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cannabinoid 1 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
cocaine 121 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
withdrawal 30 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Injury 57 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Aids-related Complex 24 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Toxicity 13 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Peritonitis 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nervous System Injury 7 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 16 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction 4 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Arthritis 22 99.58 Very High Very High Very High
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 16 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Neurodegenerative Disease 9 99.48 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we found that the anxiogenic-like effects of Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) were triggered by CRF1-R activation of the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system.
Positive_regulation (activation) of dynorphin associated with dynorphin and kappa opioid receptor
1) Confidence 0.66 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2795205 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0.71
The glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 reversed the nicotine-induced increase of Dyn, while the AMPA antagonist NBQX had a marginal effect.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Dyn
2) Confidence 0.61 Published 2009 Journal Psychopharmacology (Berl.) Section Body Doc Link 18807250 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
RESULTS: Nicotine free base, 1 mg/kg, sc, induced a biphasic, protracted increase of striatal Dyn, an initial rise by 1 h, which declined to control levels by 2 h, and a subsequent increase, between 6 and 12 h, lasting over 24 h.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Dyn
3) Confidence 0.61 Published 2009 Journal Psychopharmacology (Berl.) Section Body Doc Link 18807250 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
In dehydrated mice, prodynorphin mRNA was significantly increased in the hypothalamus and nearly all other brain areas examined.
Spec (examined) Positive_regulation (increased) of prodynorphin in hypothalamus
4) Confidence 0.60 Published 1993 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8255170 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.06
Since the up-regulation of DynA in the dorsal horn persisted and paralleled the increase in c-Fos-positive cells, the release of DynA may be associated with spontaneous pain in our model.
Positive_regulation (up-regulation) of DynA in dorsal horn associated with pain, spontaneous pain and dorsal horn
5) Confidence 0.59 Published 2005 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 15733648 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0.79
A marked up-regulation of dynorphin A (DynA) was present on Day 18 and persisted through Day 25.
Positive_regulation (up-regulation) of DynA associated with dynorphin
6) Confidence 0.59 Published 2005 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 15733648 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0.92
While no changes in DA release or uptake could be detected by microdialysis, KO animals showed a significant increase in total DA tissue content in dorsal striatum, an effect accompanied by a significant increase in striatal prodynorphin and DRD1 mRNA expression levels.
Positive_regulation (increase) of prodynorphin in striatum associated with dopamine
7) Confidence 0.53 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2736587 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 0.60
Murine monoclonal antibodies were produced against dynorphin-32 (D32), a naturally occurring opioid peptide containing the sequence of dynorphin A (Dyn A) at its amino terminus, followed by Lys-Arg, then by the sequence of dynorphin B (Dyn B).
Positive_regulation (sequence) of dynorphin B associated with dynorphin and opioid
8) Confidence 0.50 Published 1985 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 2860615 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.36
Murine monoclonal antibodies were produced against dynorphin-32 (D32), a naturally occurring opioid peptide containing the sequence of dynorphin A (Dyn A) at its amino terminus, followed by Lys-Arg, then by the sequence of dynorphin B (Dyn B).
Positive_regulation (sequence) of Dyn associated with dynorphin and opioid
9) Confidence 0.50 Published 1985 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 2860615 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.36
Murine monoclonal antibodies were produced against dynorphin-32 (D32), a naturally occurring opioid peptide containing the sequence of dynorphin A (Dyn A) at its amino terminus, followed by Lys-Arg, then by the sequence of dynorphin B (Dyn B).
Positive_regulation (sequence) of Dyn associated with dynorphin and opioid
10) Confidence 0.50 Published 1985 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 2860615 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.35
Left vagal stimulation increased Dyn release, inhibited basal SP release, and blunted the coronary artery occlusion-induced release of SP.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Dyn in coronary artery associated with dynorphin and substance p
11) Confidence 0.49 Published 2004 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 15297264 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 1.26
The involvement of dynorphin on Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and morphine responses has been investigated by using mice with a targeted inactivation of the prodynorphin (Pdyn) gene.
Spec (investigated) Positive_regulation (inactivation) of prodynorphin associated with dynorphin, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine
12) Confidence 0.49 Published 2001 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 11717384 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.78
In addition to a transient increase in neurogenesis, MCAO caused a transient up-regulation of preprodynorphin and preproenkephalin mRNA expression in the granule cell layer.
Positive_regulation (up-regulation) of preprodynorphin in granule cell associated with middle cerebral artery infarction and neurodegenerative disease
13) Confidence 0.49 Published 2008 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 18331339 Disease Relevance 1.24 Pain Relevance 0.49
The involvement of dynorphin on Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and morphine responses has been investigated by using mice with a targeted inactivation of the prodynorphin (Pdyn) gene.
Spec (investigated) Positive_regulation (inactivation) of Pdyn associated with dynorphin, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine
14) Confidence 0.49 Published 2001 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 11717384 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.79
The kindling was very effective in increasing the hippocampal levels of IR-DYN, alpha-neoendorphin and Leu-enkephalin, but remained without any significant effect on the levels of IR-DYN and beta-endorphin in the majority of brain structures studied.
Positive_regulation (increasing) of IR-DYN in brain structures associated with enkephalin
15) Confidence 0.46 Published 1983 Journal Regul. Pept. Section Abstract Doc Link 6138821 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.40
These results indicate that the anxiogenic-like effects of CRF require activation of the dynorphin/KOR system.
Positive_regulation (activation) of dynorphin associated with dynorphin and kappa opioid receptor
16) Confidence 0.44 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2795205 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.30
Prodynorphin (Pdyn) gene deletion on C57Bl/6 background were generated as previously described [1].
Positive_regulation (generated) of Pdyn
17) Confidence 0.44 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2795205 Disease Relevance 0.95 Pain Relevance 0.36
Dynorphins other than dynorphin A(1-17) lack spinal antianalgesic activity but do act on dynorphin A(1-17) receptors.
Positive_regulation (act) of dynorphin in spinal associated with dynorphin and nociceptor
18) Confidence 0.44 Published 1991 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Title Doc Link 1684812 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.33
One population is positive for dynorphin mRNA (DYN+), and these cells project preferentially to the substantia nigra, forming the so-called 'direct pathway'.
Positive_regulation (positive) of dynorphin mRNA in substantia nigra associated with dynorphin and substantia nigra
19) Confidence 0.42 Published 2001 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 11403691 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.41
In the present study, the opioid antagonists, naloxone and norbinaltorphimine (N-BNI), were shown to activate the Dyn A system.
Positive_regulation (activate) of Dyn associated with antagonist, narcan and opioid
20) Confidence 0.42 Published 1992 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 1348537 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.21

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