INT7056

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1986
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 3
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 35
Total Number 38
Disease Relevance 14.31
Pain Relevance 18.21

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (PENK) extracellular region (PENK)
Anatomy Link Frequency
dentate gyrus 2
muscle 2
brain 2
amygdala 2
nociceptors 2
PENK (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 125 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 32 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
amygdala 3 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 47 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Cholecystokinin 6 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
dorsal root ganglion 1 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
mu opioid receptor 3 99.54 Very High Very High Very High
dopamine receptor 13 99.50 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 9 99.50 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer pain 3 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Stress 12 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Natriuresis 3 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Convulsion 28 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Cold Sores 370 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Herpes Simplex Virus 11 99.86 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 36 99.78 Very High Very High Very High
Bone Cancer 2 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Glioma 17 99.54 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer Pain 3 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 4 99.20 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Overactivity of the striatopallidal pathway, associated with an enhancement of enkephalin expression, has been suggested to contribute to the development of parkinsonian symptoms.
Positive_regulation (enhancement) of Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin associated with parkinson's disease and enkephalin
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 14622918 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.28
In post-mortem samples from LD-treated parkinsonian patients, increased preproenkephalin expression in the putamen and increased GABA(A) receptors content in the internal globus pallidus (GPi) are found in dyskinetic parkinsonian patients compared to non-dyskinetic patients.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin in putamen associated with parkinson's disease and gaba
2) Confidence 0.68 Published 2002 Journal Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. Section Abstract Doc Link 12217634 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0.19
This vector induced enkephalin expression selectively in the nociceptors innervating the tissue onto which it was applied, producing a profound analgesic and antihyperalgesic in acute and chronic pain models in both rodents and non-human primates.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin in nociceptors associated with antihyperalgesic, lasting pain, analgesic, nociceptor and enkephalin
3) Confidence 0.67 Published 2009 Journal Gene Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 19225546 Disease Relevance 0.51 Pain Relevance 0.83
The second messenger pathway leading to proenkephalin expression demonstrates how cyclic AMP pathways are synchronized with depolarization.
Positive_regulation (leading) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin
4) Confidence 0.67 Published 2003 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 12877986 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.09
This suggests that zif/268 induction in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is not sufficient to increase Penk gene expression.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (expression) of Penk in dentate gyrus
5) Confidence 0.67 Published 1994 Journal Neuroreport Section Abstract Doc Link 7948847 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
Interestingly, overexpression of proenkephalin A in primary sensory neurones induced antinociceptive effects in persistent pain of inflammatory, neuropathic and cancerous origins.
Positive_regulation (overexpression) of Gene_expression (overexpression) of proenkephalin A
6) Confidence 0.67 Published 2003 Journal Curr Opin Anaesthesiol Section Body Doc Link 17021510 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
In a similar fashion, we have demonstrated that a vector expressing proenkephalin to mediate the release of opioid peptides from afferent nerve terminals in the spinal cord can be used to produce a localized antinociceptive effect in animal models of pain.
Positive_regulation (mediate) of Gene_expression (expressing) of proenkephalin in nerve associated with pain, antinociceptive, opioid and spinal cord
7) Confidence 0.67 Published 2002 Journal Physiol. Behav. Section Abstract Doc Link 12526987 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0.34
In Parkinson's disease cases, there was a statistically significant increase in preproenkephalin messenger RNA expression in the body of the caudate (109% increase, P < 0.05) and in the intermediolateral putamen (55% increase, P < 0.05) due to an increase in the level of gene expression per neuron rather than an increase in the number of neurons expressing preproenkephalin messenger RNA.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin messenger RNA in body associated with urological neuroanatomy and disease
8) Confidence 0.61 Published 1995 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 7477878 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.16
Herpes vector-mediated expression of proenkephalin reduces bone cancer pain.
Positive_regulation (mediated) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin associated with cancer pain, enkephalin and bone cancer
9) Confidence 0.58 Published 2002 Journal Ann. Neurol. Section Title Doc Link 12402268 Disease Relevance 0.83 Pain Relevance 0.52
These results showed that PENK expression was not due to cell culture.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (due) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK
10) Confidence 0.58 Published 2005 Journal BMC Urol Section Body Doc Link PMC1327674 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.17
Limbic seizures induce enhanced enkephalin synthesis lasting for up to 2 weeks.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Gene_expression (synthesis) of enkephalin associated with convulsion and enkephalin
11) Confidence 0.57 Published 1992 Journal Epilepsy Res. Suppl. Section Abstract Doc Link 1337448 Disease Relevance 0.97 Pain Relevance 0.99
For instance, depression or other withdrawal symptoms might only occur when the interval between seizures is greater than the duration of seizure-induced enkephalin synthesis.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Gene_expression (synthesis) of enkephalin associated with convulsion, depression, enkephalin and withdrawal
12) Confidence 0.57 Published 1992 Journal Epilepsy Res. Suppl. Section Abstract Doc Link 1337448 Disease Relevance 0.97 Pain Relevance 0.65
In PC12 and C6-glioma cells, depolarization-induced expression of a transfected proenkephalin fusion gene was proportional to extracellular calcium concentration and was inhibited by verapamil.
Positive_regulation (transfected) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin fusion gene associated with glioma
13) Confidence 0.52 Published 1990 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 2167356 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0
In PC12 and C6-glioma cells, depolarization-induced expression of a transfected proenkephalin fusion gene was proportional to extracellular calcium concentration and was inhibited by verapamil.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin fusion gene associated with glioma
14) Confidence 0.52 Published 1990 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 2167356 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0
The aim of the present study was to examine whether the blockade of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors: subtypes 1 and 5 (mGluR1/5), or stimulation of group II: subtypes 2 and 3 (mGluR2/3) may normalize enkephalin expression in the striatopallidal pathway in an animal model of parkinsonism.
Spec (may) Positive_regulation (normalize) of Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin associated with parkinson's disease, glutamate receptor and enkephalin
15) Confidence 0.50 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 14622918 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.31
We examined the pharmacologic characteristics of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector-mediated expression of proenkephalin in the dorsal root ganglion in a rodent model of neuropathic pain.
Spec (examined) Positive_regulation (vector-mediated) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin in dorsal root ganglion associated with ganglion cysts, dorsal root ganglion, cold sores, herpes simplex virus and neuropathic pain
16) Confidence 0.49 Published 2003 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 12620604 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 1.14
This synchronization of second messenger pathways provides a coincidence mechanism that gates proenkephalin synthesis in striatal neurons, ensuring that levels are increased only in the presence of activated PKA and depolarization.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (synthesis) of proenkephalin in neurons
17) Confidence 0.49 Published 2003 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 12877986 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.06
T helper 2 cytokines induce preproenkephalin mRNA expression and proenkephalin A in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Positive_regulation (induce) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin A in blood associated with cytokine
18) Confidence 0.49 Published 1997 Journal J. Neuroimmunol. Section Title Doc Link 9357452 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.65
The neuronal excitation caused by KA leads to increases in the expression of a variety of genes, including immediate-early genes and opioid peptides derived from proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN).
Positive_regulation (increases) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin in neuronal associated with opioid
19) Confidence 0.49 Published 2006 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 16300887 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.17
Gene expression profiling of human hibernating myocardium: increased expression of B-type natriuretic peptide and proenkephalin in hypocontractile vs normally-contracting regions of the heart.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin in heart associated with natriuresis and enkephalin
20) Confidence 0.49 Published 2008 Journal Eur. J. Heart Fail. Section Title Doc Link 18974021 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.28

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