INT728

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1978
Last Reported 2010
Negated 51
Speculated 41
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 1068
Total Number 1109
Disease Relevance 186.90
Pain Relevance 636.87

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
striatum 73
brain 45
hypothalamus 42
neurons 38
hippocampus 33
Penk (Rattus norvegicus)
Penk - A2L (2) Penk - A2M (1)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 5489 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 774 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 506 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 494 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hippocampus 449 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
opioid receptor 398 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 390 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 384 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
opiate 363 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 322 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cold Sores 679 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 360 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Convulsion 318 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 228 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 66 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Aids-related Complex 57 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 55 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opiate Addiction 34 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoglycemia 30 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 431 99.98 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In contrast, activation of protein kinases A and C strongly enhances the levels of PEnk mRNA in confluent cultures.
Positive_regulation (activation) of PEnk mRNA
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9221949 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
Pharmacological evidence indicates that stress induced by brief (14 to 20-day) social deprivation in the rat is associated with an activation of the central preproenkephalin (ENK) opioid system.
Positive_regulation (activation) of ENK associated with stress and opioid
2) Confidence 0.70 Published 1992 Journal Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 1490274 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.24
A dose- and time-dependent increase of striatal ENK level was observed after chronic administration of the neuroleptics (NL), but 8 days after withdrawal of chronically administered NL striatal ENK was decreased.
Positive_regulation (increase) of ENK associated with enkephalin and withdrawal
3) Confidence 0.70 Published 1991 Journal Psychopharmacology (Berl.) Section Abstract Doc Link 1881995 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.74
In perfusion fluid obtained from the lateral ventricle of animals treated 1 month with HAL a dose-dependent increase of ENK levels was observed, which was augmented by potassium ions.
Positive_regulation (increase) of ENK in lateral ventricle associated with enkephalin
4) Confidence 0.70 Published 1991 Journal Psychopharmacology (Berl.) Section Abstract Doc Link 1881995 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.85
From postnatal day 11 through day 20 there is a gradual accumulation of Enk fibers within each of the sympathetic nuclei such that the density and distribution of immunoreactive fibers approaches the adult appearance by postnatal day 20.
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of Enk in sympathetic associated with enkephalin
5) Confidence 0.70 Published 1989 Journal Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2720959 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.95
In males, delta9-THC administration to intact animals induced PENK mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and ventromedial nucleus (VMN) of the hypothalamus.
Positive_regulation (induced) of PENK mRNA in nucleus
6) Confidence 0.70 Published 2002 Journal J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) Section Abstract Doc Link 12503826 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
An increase in PENK mRNA levels has been also observed in cultures treated with 8-Br-cAMP, phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA), or dexamethasone. 4.
Positive_regulation (increase) of PENK mRNA associated with dexamethasone
7) Confidence 0.70 Published 1991 Journal Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2029727 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.47
The increase in PENK mRNA in depolarized and in TPA-dexamethasone-, or 8-Br-cAMP-treated cultures was not accompanied by a significant increase in the amount of free immunoreactive met-enkephalin.
Positive_regulation (increase) of PENK mRNA associated with enkephalin and dexamethasone
8) Confidence 0.70 Published 1991 Journal Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2029727 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.55
Apomorphine, but not naloxone, prevented elevation of enkephalin levels after a one month FLU administration.
Positive_regulation (elevation) of enkephalin associated with narcan and enkephalin
9) Confidence 0.70 Published 1984 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 6514149 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.61
Striatal met- and leu-enkephalin contents were determined after 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of treatment, and one week after the drug withdrawal following a 12-month treatment, Enkephalin levels were significantly increased with slight fluctuations in some months and returned to normal one week after the last neuroleptic dose following a 12-month administration.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Enkephalin associated with enkephalin and withdrawal
10) Confidence 0.70 Published 1984 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 6514149 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.58
There was an increased immunolabelling for two of the neuropeptides tested, substance P and enkephalin, in the innervation of the subglottic glands and in the acetylcholinesterase-positive ganglionic cells of the local ganglia.
Positive_regulation (increased) of enkephalin in ganglia associated with neuropeptide, enkephalin and substance p
11) Confidence 0.70 Published 1995 Journal Cell Tissue Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 7534650 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.53
Rat ventricular cardiac muscle has previously been shown to contain exceptionally high levels of preproenkephalin mRNA (ppEnk mRNA).
Positive_regulation (levels) of ppEnk mRNA in cardiac muscle
12) Confidence 0.70 Published 1992 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 1279991 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.07
Moreover, cholinergic induction of ppEnk RNA initiation was observed in the adrenal medulla, but not in the striatum.
Positive_regulation (induction) of ppEnk in striatum associated with medulla
13) Confidence 0.70 Published 1990 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 2211630 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.10
During sciatic nerve stimulation, the levels of both Enk and X-Enk were mildly elevated in spinal and ventricular perfusates.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of Enk in sciatic nerve associated with enkephalin and sciatic nerve
14) Confidence 0.70 Published 1990 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 2087436 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.63
By using Northern blot, we now show that a bolus injection of estrogen results in a rapid increase in spinal cord enkephalin mRNA levels in ovariectomized female rats.
Positive_regulation (increase) of enkephalin in spinal cord associated with enkephalin and spinal cord
15) Confidence 0.70 Published 1999 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 10534596 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.85
A small increase in the amount of enkephalin mRNA was also seen after 8 h (P<0.05), whereas no difference between estrogen-injected and control animals was found after 24 h or at time periods shorter than 4 h.
Positive_regulation (increase) of enkephalin associated with enkephalin
16) Confidence 0.70 Published 1999 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 10534596 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.84
The increases in Enk-IR were correlated with increased ganglionic proenkephalin A mRNA detected by in situ hybridization.
Positive_regulation (increases) of Enk-IR associated with enkephalin
17) Confidence 0.70 Published 1994 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 8083765 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.00
Ovariectomy produced a significant increase in the enkephalin levels of the same region but this increase was completely prevented by replacement with estradiol.
Positive_regulation (increase) of enkephalin associated with enkephalin
18) Confidence 0.70 Published 1982 Journal Life Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 7162336 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.81
Repeated injections of haloperidol elicited effects similar to those of estrogen on the pituitary and brain enkephalin levels; namely, striatal enkephalin levels were increased whereas pituitary enkephalin levels were decreased after long-term treatment with these two compounds.
Positive_regulation (increased) of enkephalin in pituitary associated with enkephalin
19) Confidence 0.70 Published 1982 Journal Life Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 7162336 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.87
Diazepam selectively increased the enkephalin concentrations in the hypothalamus by about 35%, and lowered it in the corpus striatum by roughly 25%; no changes could be detected in the medulla oblongata/pons or midbrain.
Positive_regulation (increased) of enkephalin in hypothalamus associated with medulla, midbrain and enkephalin
20) Confidence 0.70 Published 1979 Journal Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 522892 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.61

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