INT7287

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1984
Last Reported 2010
Negated 4
Speculated 2
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 103
Total Number 107
Disease Relevance 19.81
Pain Relevance 50.37

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
striatum 42
hypothalamus 16
spinal cord 12
neurons 12
amygdala 8
Penk (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 385 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 78 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 45 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 40 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nicotine 39 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 32 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 31 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 27 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Central grey 14 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Catecholamine 12 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Convulsion 26 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 19 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 29 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Catalepsy 25 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Dyskinesias 2 99.58 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 16 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Infarction 5 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Sprains And Strains 3 98.92 Very High Very High Very High
Hypertension 24 98.60 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 43 98.36 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Systemic immune challenge induces preproenkephalin gene transcription in distinct autonomic structures of the rat brain.
Positive_regulation (induces) of Transcription (transcription) of preproenkephalin in autonomic associated with enkephalin
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 2003 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Title Doc Link 12811812 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.30
These results demonstrated that enkephalin transcription is induced in central autonomic neurons during immune challenge, suggesting that enkephalins are involved in the centrally orchestrated response to such stimuli.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Transcription (transcription) of enkephalin in autonomic neurons associated with enkephalin
2) Confidence 0.70 Published 2003 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 12811812 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.24
Our data suggest that this type of stress appears to be associated to an induction of ENK gene transcription in hypothalamus.
Positive_regulation (induction) of Transcription (transcription) of ENK gene in hypothalamus associated with stress
3) Confidence 0.70 Published 1992 Journal Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 1490274 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.26
Since it is believed that main motor symptoms of PD are due to the overactivity of the GABAergic striopallidal pathway, the aim of the present study was to find out whether SCH 58261, a selective antagonist of the adenosine A(2A) receptors, is capable of counteracting both the catalepsy and the enhancement of proenkephalin (PENK) mRNA expression in the rat striatum, induced by haloperidol administered at 1.5 mg/kg s.c. 3 times, every 3 h.
Positive_regulation (enhancement) of Transcription (expression) of proenkephalin in striatum associated with adenocard, catalepsy, antagonist, gabaergic and disease
4) Confidence 0.70 Published 2003 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 12834887 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0.37
It is known that such side-effects may be due to overactivation of the GABAergic strio-pallidal pathway, which may be estimated as an increased expression of proenkephalin (PENK) mRNA in the striatum.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Transcription (expression) of proenkephalin in striatum associated with gabaergic
5) Confidence 0.69 Published 2003 Journal Psychopharmacology (Berl.) Section Abstract Doc Link 12684736 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.21
Designing a probe against intron 1 of the PENK gene allowed us to measure hnPENK levels, which are temporally more proximal to and more sensitive to relative changes in PENK transcription, as we avoided detecting the large cellular pool of PENK mRNA that exists in striatal, indirect pathway neurons.
Positive_regulation (changes) of Transcription (transcription) of PENK in neurons
6) Confidence 0.69 Published 2007 Journal BMC Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC1868707 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Food cues increased corticostriatal IEG correlations and corticothalamic IEG correlations with striatal hnPENK, suggesting that food cue-induced activity within cortical and thalamic afferents to the striatum activated the indirect pathway and PENK transcription [102].
Positive_regulation (activated) of Transcription (transcription) of PENK in striatum
7) Confidence 0.69 Published 2007 Journal BMC Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC1868707 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.80
Proenkephalin mRNA abundance (quantified by an RNA-cDNA hybridization technique) and precursor level (as reflected by cryptic ME content) were increased in the striatum of both neonatally and adult-lesioned rats.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Transcription (abundance) of Proenkephalin in striatum associated with enkephalin
8) Confidence 0.67 Published 1987 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 2889804 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.78
These data are consistent with receptor-mediated activation of proenkephalin gene transcription in uterine cells.
Positive_regulation (activation) of Transcription (transcription) of proenkephalin in uterine
9) Confidence 0.67 Published 1988 Journal Mol. Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2460751 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.05
Both ligands stimulated PENK gene transcription in a dose-dependent manner, with an apparent ED50 close to 5 x 10(-11) M.
Positive_regulation (stimulated) of Transcription (transcription) of PENK gene
10) Confidence 0.66 Published 1998 Journal DNA Cell Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 9502431 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0
Transcription of the proenkephalin gene is increased via protein kinase A upon stimulation with cyclic AMP (cAMP) analogues.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Transcription (Transcription) of proenkephalin gene
11) Confidence 0.65 Published 1996 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 8780011 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.19
Animal studies have shown that a depletion of dopamine or blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum produces an increase in striatal proenkephalin (PENK) mRNA expression and an increase in GABAergic transmission in the globus pallidus.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Transcription (expression) of proenkephalin in striatum associated with dopamine and gabaergic
12) Confidence 0.61 Published 2003 Journal Pol J Pharmacol Section Abstract Doc Link 14730088 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.22
These data show that the paraventricular hypothalamic neurons that display induced preproenkephalin transcription following immune challenge are almost exclusively hypophysiotropic neurons, indicating a role for enkephalin in the hypothalamic control of hormone release during infectious and inflammatory conditions.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Transcription (transcription) of preproenkephalin in neurons associated with inflammation and enkephalin
13) Confidence 0.60 Published 2006 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 16949213 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.22
Lipopolysaccharide induces preproenkephalin transcription in hypophysiotropic neurons of the rat paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus suggesting a neuroendocrine role for enkephalins during immune stress.
Positive_regulation (induces) of Transcription (transcription) of preproenkephalin in neurons associated with stress and enkephalin
14) Confidence 0.60 Published 2006 Journal Neuroscience Section Title Doc Link 16949213 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.39
Electroacupuncture enhances preproenkephalin mRNA expression in rostral ventrolateral medulla of rats.
Positive_regulation (enhances) of Transcription (expression) of preproenkephalin in medulla associated with rostral ventrolateral medulla and electroacupuncture
15) Confidence 0.58 Published 2010 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Title Doc Link 20399834 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.85
After two days in explant culture, the rate of enkephalin transcription increased approximately 2-fold (to the same level as actin transcription); while tyrosine hydroxylase transcriptional activity fell to 30% of actin level.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Transcription (transcription) of enkephalin associated with enkephalin
16) Confidence 0.58 Published 1989 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2564622 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.44
However, at higher physiological concentrations (6 mM), TH mRNA levels are significantly reduced while ppEnk mRNA transcripts remained elevated.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of Transcription (transcripts) of ppEnk
17) Confidence 0.55 Published 2007 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 17174279 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.19
Since it is believed that main motor symptoms of PD are due to the overactivity of the GABAergic striopallidal pathway, the aim of the present study was to find out whether SCH 58261, a selective antagonist of the adenosine A(2A) receptors, is capable of counteracting both the catalepsy and the enhancement of proenkephalin (PENK) mRNA expression in the rat striatum, induced by haloperidol administered at 1.5 mg/kg s.c. 3 times, every 3 h.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Transcription (expression) of PENK in striatum associated with adenocard, catalepsy, antagonist, gabaergic and disease
18) Confidence 0.50 Published 2003 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 12834887 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0.39
Since it is believed that main motor symptoms of PD are due to the overactivity of the GABAergic striopallidal pathway, the aim of the present study was to find out whether SCH 58261, a selective antagonist of the adenosine A(2A) receptors, is capable of counteracting both the catalepsy and the enhancement of proenkephalin (PENK) mRNA expression in the rat striatum, induced by haloperidol administered at 1.5 mg/kg s.c. 3 times, every 3 h.
Positive_regulation (enhancement) of Transcription (expression) of proenkephalin in striatum associated with adenocard, catalepsy, antagonist, gabaergic and disease
19) Confidence 0.50 Published 2003 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 12834887 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0.37
Since it is believed that main motor symptoms of PD are due to the overactivity of the GABAergic striopallidal pathway, the aim of the present study was to find out whether SCH 58261, a selective antagonist of the adenosine A(2A) receptors, is capable of counteracting both the catalepsy and the enhancement of proenkephalin (PENK) mRNA expression in the rat striatum, induced by haloperidol administered at 1.5 mg/kg s.c. 3 times, every 3 h.
Positive_regulation (enhancement) of Transcription (expression) of PENK in striatum associated with adenocard, catalepsy, antagonist, gabaergic and disease
20) Confidence 0.50 Published 2003 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 12834887 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0.37

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