INT73504

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Context Info
Confidence 0.45
First Reported 1997
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 35
Total Number 36
Disease Relevance 15.99
Pain Relevance 10.04

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (CD28) plasma membrane (CD28)
Anatomy Link Frequency
T cells 17
CD86 5
lymphocytes 2
cytotoxic T-lymphocyte 1
blood 1
CD28 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
cytokine 411 99.86 Very High Very High Very High
abatacept 410 99.22 Very High Very High Very High
spinal inflammation 290 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 412 97.16 Very High Very High Very High
psoriasis 364 92.88 High High
rheumatoid arthritis 381 92.84 High High
tolerance 51 91.28 High High
antagonist 23 91.20 High High
Arthritis 512 88.16 High High
withdrawal 14 83.60 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Disease 532 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Low Back Pain 311 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Vasculitis 60 98.44 Very High Very High Very High
Aging 113 97.90 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 431 97.16 Very High Very High Very High
Psoriasis 409 92.88 High High
Rheumatoid Arthritis 388 92.84 High High
Leukocytosis 4 91.40 High High
Necrosis 59 90.44 High High
Cancer 304 90.08 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Abatacept is a fully human soluble recombinant fusion protein that acts by binding to CD80/CD86 on antigen-presenting cells and inhibiting interaction with CD28 on T cells, thus preventing one of the co-stimulatory signals needed for full T-cell activation.
CD28 Binding (interaction) of in T-cell associated with abatacept
1) Confidence 0.45 Published 2007 Journal Adv Ther Section Abstract Doc Link 17565924 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0.71
Unfractionated as well as CD45RO- CD31+ sort-purified neonatal CD4 T cells acquire the capacity to produce a large spectrum of cytokines after priming with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), in the absence of both APC and exogenous cytokines.
CD28 Binding (priming) of in T cells associated with cytokine
2) Confidence 0.36 Published 1997 Journal Eur. J. Immunol. Section Abstract Doc Link 9464843 Disease Relevance 0.81 Pain Relevance 0.56
It has been suggested, therefore, that the amount of CD8+ CTLs in a peripheral blood sample can be estimated by determining the percentage of CD8+ CD28- T cells.
CD28 Binding (percentage) of in blood
3) Confidence 0.35 Published 2002 Journal Arthritis Res Section Body Doc Link PMC64855 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0.33
Cells were then stained for their surface antigens CD28 and CD8 and, after permeabilization, with FITC-conjugated anti-perforin, anti-IFN-?
CD28 Binding (stained) of
4) Confidence 0.35 Published 2002 Journal Arthritis Res Section Body Doc Link PMC64855 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.18
To detect a possible association between CD4+CD28- T cells and disease status, patients were grouped according to their movement restrictions and functional measurements.
CD28 Binding (association) of in T cells associated with disease
5) Confidence 0.31 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193730 Disease Relevance 0.84 Pain Relevance 0.42
For phenotypic characterization of CD4+CD28- T cells, surface expressions of CD57 and CD7 were compared between the CD28+ and the CD28- CD4+ T cell compartments.
CD28 Binding (characterization) of in T cells
6) Confidence 0.31 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193730 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.03
As shown in Figure 3a, lymphocytes were gated on the forward and side scatter and specific gates were set to focus CD4+CD28null and CD4+CD28+ T cells for the analysis of TLR expression.
CD28null Binding (focus) of in lymphocytes
7) Confidence 0.30 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1297589 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.24
To address PRR surface expression on T cells, PBMCs from patients as well as from healthy controls were incubated with mAbs against CD4, CD14, CD28, TLR4 and TLR2, and were analysed by flow cytometry.
CD28 Spec (analysed) Binding (mAbs) of in T cells
8) Confidence 0.30 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1297589 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.31
Insufficient blockade of CD28/B7 interaction may partly account for the limited results obtained in NHP models.
CD28 Binding (interaction) of
9) Confidence 0.27 Published 2007 Journal Biologics : Targets & Therapy Section Body Doc Link PMC2721321 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.17
The costimulation signal is delivered when B7-1/CD80 and B7-2/CD86 on the surface of DCs engage CD28 on T-cells (Bromley et al 2001).
CD28 Binding (engage) of in T-cells
10) Confidence 0.26 Published 2007 Journal Biologics : Targets & Therapy Section Body Doc Link PMC2721321 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0
As shown in Figure 3a, lymphocytes were gated on the forward and side scatter and specific gates were set to focus CD4+CD28null and CD4+CD28+ T cells for the analysis of TLR expression.
CD28 Binding (focus) of in lymphocytes
11) Confidence 0.26 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1297589 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.29
CTLA-4, a natural inhibitor of CD28, binds to CD80/86 molecules with high affinity and competes with CD28.
CD28 Binding (binds) of
12) Confidence 0.26 Published 2005 Journal J Immune Based Ther Vaccines Section Body Doc Link PMC1208938 Disease Relevance 0.68 Pain Relevance 0.30
Because CD152 has a high affinity for CD80 and CD86, soluble forms of CTLA4 inhibit the interaction of CD28 with its ligands.
CD28 Neg (inhibit) Binding (interaction) of in CD86
13) Confidence 0.25 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2833981 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0.32
The most important ligand is CTLA-4, a well-defined down-regulator of T-cell activation, which has a much higher binding affinity for CD80/CD86 than CD28.
CD28 Binding (binding) of in T-cell
14) Confidence 0.24 Published 2008 Journal Biologics : Targets & Therapy Section Body Doc Link PMC2727897 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.65
Because CTLA4 has a higher affinity than CD28 for the CD80/86 ligand, it binds to most of the available molecules, effectively shutting down further T cell proliferation.
CD28 Binding (binds) of in T cell
15) Confidence 0.24 Published 2010 Journal Drug Design, Development and Therapy Section Body Doc Link PMC2998809 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.07
It competes with CD28 for binding to CD80/CD86 with a much higher affinity for these ligands, and provides a negative feedback loop (Sfikakis & Via 1997).
CD28 Binding (binding) of in CD86
16) Confidence 0.24 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012435 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.30
Subsequently, there is a chain of molecular events including engagement of CD154 (CD40L) on Th2 cells and CD40 on B cells, along with engagement of CD28 and CD80/86 on Th2 and B cells respectively.
CD28 Binding (engagement) of in B cells
17) Confidence 0.23 Published 2010 Journal Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2946700 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.30
Abatacept (ABA) is a novel biologic agent, targeting CD28/B7 interaction (Figure 1).


CD28 Binding (interaction) of associated with abatacept
18) Confidence 0.23 Published 2008 Journal Biologics : Targets & Therapy Section Body Doc Link PMC2727897 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.72
CTLA4 expression therefore results in competitive inhibition of further binding with CD28, terminating T-cell activation.
CD28 Binding (binding) of in T-cell
19) Confidence 0.23 Published 2006 Journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1936358 Disease Relevance 0.51 Pain Relevance 0.22
Optimal T cell activation in vivo also requires two signals, one being induced by MHC-TCR interaction and the other provided by positive co-stimulatory ligands like CD28.
CD28 Binding (ligands) of in T cell
20) Confidence 0.20 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2814860 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.42

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