INT74392

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Context Info
Confidence 0.43
First Reported 1998
Last Reported 2008
Negated 3
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 4
Total Number 22
Disease Relevance 7.23
Pain Relevance 1.65

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (LGALS4) cell adhesion (LGALS4) plasma membrane (LGALS4)
Anatomy Link Frequency
T cells 15
leukocyte 2
synapse 2
neurons 1
lamina 1
LGALS4 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Inflammation 703 97.08 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 532 96.76 Very High Very High Very High
Adalimumab 38 95.84 Very High Very High Very High
peripheral neuropathy 1 93.96 High High
cINOD 19 81.76 Quite High
addiction 19 68.80 Quite High
Crohn's disease 76 67.28 Quite High
Nerve growth factor 1 66.32 Quite High
Somatostatin 3 54.16 Quite High
abdominal pain 19 52.76 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Adenocarcinoma 134 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammatory Bowel Disease 342 99.46 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 513 97.08 Very High Very High Very High
Death 384 96.68 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 19 96.08 Very High Very High Very High
Peripheral Neuropathy 2 93.96 High High
Apoptosis 1026 93.56 High High
Colitis 323 91.96 High High
Necrosis 57 83.00 Quite High
Cancer 120 77.08 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Galectin-4 binding to T cells
Galectin-4 Binding (binding) of in T cells
1) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.11
Interestingly, our finding that Gal-4 binds only to activated, but not resting T cells, might explain the recently described phenomena by Hokama et al., that the reactivity of CD4+ T cells to Gal-4 is only elicited under inflammatory conditions [10].
Gal-4 Binding (binds) of in T cells associated with inflammation
2) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.08
T cell dysfunction is undoubtedly a key feature in the initiation and perpetuation of IBD and by demonstrating that Gal-4 binds to activated peripheral and mucosal T cells, we set ground to further investigate the role of Gal-4 in the adaptive immune system.
Gal-4 Binding (binds) of in T cells associated with inflammatory bowel disease
3) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 0.42 Pain Relevance 0.13
Having defined that Gal-4 is strongly expressed in gastrointestinal epithelial cells, we next investigated, if Gal-4 is also secreted by epithelial cells and thus can interact with the underlying T cells in the lamina propria.


Gal-4 Binding (interact) of in lamina
4) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.03
The selective binding patterns of Gal-4 suggested that Gal-4 binding sides might be associated with surface regions involved in the activation of T cells and in deed, Hokama et al. reported that Gal-4 binds to CD4+ T cells at the immunological synapse [10].
Gal-4 Binding (binds) of in synapse
5) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.07
Since 50 mM lactose was effective in impairing binding of Gal-4 to T cells, we reasoned that cell viability should remain unaffected when blocking carbohydrate-dependent binding.
Gal-4 Binding (binding) of in T cells
6) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 1.04 Pain Relevance 0.08
Determination of Gal-4 binding to T cells was performed by incubating resting and for 48 h CD3/CD28-stimulated PBT and CD2-stimulated LPT with 5 µg/ml Gal-4, a dose not able to induce T cell apoptosis.
Gal-4 Spec (Determination) Binding (binding) of in T cells associated with apoptosis
7) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.11
Thus, the binding of extracellular Gal-4 to this complex or a tightly associated glycoprotein as major target implies that Gal-4 is capable of modulating central T cell functions.
Gal-4 Binding (binding) of in T cell
8) Confidence 0.37 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0.04
+), but not in CD4+ T cells from wild-type mice, confirming the association of Gal-4 to the TCR region and indicating that the ability of CD4+ T cells to produce IL-6 in response to Gal-4 is dependent on the presence of TCR mutations [10].
Gal-4 Binding (association) of in T cells
9) Confidence 0.33 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 0.94 Pain Relevance 0.19
Having described the cell-binding capacity of Gal-4 and its ability to modulate T cell activation, cycling and expansion as well as cytokine secretion, we next addressed the question of whether its cell binding induces apoptosis.


Gal-4 Binding (capacity) of in T cell associated with apoptosis and cytokine
10) Confidence 0.33 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.08
The selective binding patterns of Gal-4 suggested that Gal-4 binding sides might be associated with surface regions involved in the activation of T cells and in deed, Hokama et al. reported that Gal-4 binds to CD4+ T cells at the immunological synapse [10].
Gal-4 Binding (binding) of in synapse
11) Confidence 0.33 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.08
These genes include many not previously associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, such as galectin-4 (LGALS4), mucin 13 (MUC13), secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), collagen 17A1 (COL17A1), and ropporin 1-like (ROPN1L).
LGALS4 Neg (not) Binding (associated) of in leukocyte associated with adenocarcinoma
12) Confidence 0.32 Published 2007 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC1824711 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0
These genes include many not previously associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, such as galectin-4 (LGALS4), mucin 13 (MUC13), secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), collagen 17A1 (COL17A1), and ropporin 1-like (ROPN1L).
galectin-4 Neg (not) Binding (associated) of in leukocyte associated with adenocarcinoma
13) Confidence 0.32 Published 2007 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC1824711 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0
The strong down-regulation of CD25 expression of CD3-activated T cells by Gal-4 proves the biological consequence of the Gal-4 binding to the CD3 complex.
Gal-4 Binding (binding) of in T cells
14) Confidence 0.32 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.06
Carbohydrate-dependent binding of Gal-4 to T cells
Gal-4 Binding (binding) of in T cells
15) Confidence 0.32 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
To investigate Gal-4 binding to T cells, Gal-4 was added to resting and stimulated peripheral blood and lamina propria (LPT) T cells and binding was quantified by flow cytometric analysis.
Gal-4 Binding (binding) of in T cells
16) Confidence 0.32 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Gal-4 did not bind to unstimulated, but to anti-CD3 and anti-CD2 stimulated PBT and LPT, respectively.
Gal-4 Neg (not) Binding (bind) of
17) Confidence 0.32 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
To investigate Gal-4 binding to T cells, Gal-4 was added to resting and stimulated peripheral blood and lamina propria (LPT) T cells and binding was quantified by flow cytometric analysis.
Gal-4 Binding (binding) of in T cells
18) Confidence 0.32 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
We could demonstrate that Gal-4 potently binds to activated T cells at the CD3 region which is translated in a potent inhibition of cell cycle progression and induction of antigen-induced cell death.
Gal-4 Binding (binds) of in T cells associated with death
19) Confidence 0.32 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 1.32 Pain Relevance 0.37
Having defined that Gal-4 is secreted by epithelial cells, we next addressed the question of whether Gal-4 binds to T cells, obligatory to modulate their function.


Gal-4 Spec (whether) Binding (binds) of in T cells
20) Confidence 0.32 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0

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