INT7644

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Context Info
Confidence 0.69
First Reported 1992
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 2
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 27
Total Number 29
Disease Relevance 10.19
Pain Relevance 17.47

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cell death (PDYN) extracellular region (PDYN) plasma membrane (PDYN)
Anatomy Link Frequency
spinal cord 6
striatum 6
spinal 6
nucleus 4
neural 3
PDYN (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dynorphin 128 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 58 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 44 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 21 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
allodynia 11 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 18 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 29 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
opioid receptor 36 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 231 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 32 98.80 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
INFLAMMATION 22 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 27 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropathic Pain 18 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 16 99.42 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 7 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
Nervous System Injury 1 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
Epilepsy 7 98.44 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 146 98.36 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperalgesia 13 98.06 Very High Very High Very High
Convulsion 4 97.84 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
We now report pronounced increases of prodynorphin mRNA expression in the dentate gyrus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in comparison to controls.
Positive_regulation (increases) of Gene_expression (expression) of prodynorphin mRNA in temporal lobe associated with epilepsy
1) Confidence 0.69 Published 2009 Journal Hippocampus Section Abstract Doc Link 19437412 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0.18
The evidence for positive selection on the functional 68-bp element, and hence for increased PDYN expression in humans, raises the possibility that selection has also acted more recently on the alleles that differ in the number of tandem repeats of the element following the origin of modern humans.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of PDYN
2) Confidence 0.69 Published 2005 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC1283535 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.03
Prodynorphin mRNA expression is increased in the patch vs matrix compartment of the caudate nucleus in suicide subjects.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of Prodynorphin mRNA in caudate nucleus associated with suicidal behaviour and enkephalin
3) Confidence 0.68 Published 1997 Journal Mol. Psychiatry Section Title Doc Link 9399695 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.78
It, thus, appears that dedifferentiation of chromaffin cells induces expression of the prodynorphin gene.
Spec (appears) Positive_regulation (induces) of Gene_expression (expression) of prodynorphin in chromaffin cells
4) Confidence 0.67 Published 1992 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 1353443 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.60
These experiments show a role of Fos in modulating somatosensory sensitivity and suggest that induction of dynorphin synthesis is not the sole mechanism by which Fos does so.
Positive_regulation (induction) of Gene_expression (synthesis) of dynorphin associated with dynorphin
5) Confidence 0.67 Published 2001 Journal J Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 14622822 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 0.86
It is well established that nerve injury or inflammatory injury results in a time-dependent increase in the expression of dynorphin in the spinal cord.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (expression) of dynorphin in spinal cord associated with nervous system injury, dynorphin, inflammation, injury and spinal cord
6) Confidence 0.67 Published 2002 Journal J Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 14622757 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0.80
On the other hand, the hyperalgesia, as a consequence of peripheral inflammation induced by a variety of agents, is associated with increased dynorphin expression [18-20], and opioid receptor antagonists reversed the decrease in dynorphin level induced by paracetamol [21].
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of dynorphin associated with paracetamol, hyperalgesia, dynorphin, inflammation, antagonist and opioid receptor
7) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal The Korean Journal of Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC3000619 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 1.75
Opposite effects of budesonide on basal and inflammation-induced prodynorphin expression may involve a spinal site of action in addition to peripheral anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Gene_expression (expression) of prodynorphin in spinal associated with inflammation
8) Confidence 0.67 Published 1994 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 7898656 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0.80
The neuronal excitation caused by KA leads to increases in the expression of a variety of genes, including immediate-early genes and opioid peptides derived from proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN).
Positive_regulation (increases) of Gene_expression (expression) of PDYN in neuronal associated with opioid
9) Confidence 0.49 Published 2006 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 16300887 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.17
Inhibition of spinal Fos expression increases formalin-induced nociception and decreases spinal prodynorphin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), suggesting that Fos modulates nociception by inducing dynorphin synthesis.
Positive_regulation (inducing) of Gene_expression (synthesis) of dynorphin in spinal associated with nociception and dynorphin
10) Confidence 0.49 Published 2001 Journal J Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 14622822 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.52
We hypothesized that activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and the expression of c-Fos, prodynorphin (mRNA), and dynorphin in the spinal cord could participate in the molecular mechanisms underlying postoperative opioid-induced sensitization.
Positive_regulation (activation) of Gene_expression (expression) of prodynorphin in spinal cord associated with dynorphin, opioid and spinal cord
11) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal Mol. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19917879 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.92
This decrease was correlated with enhancement of the expression of preproenkephalin-B mRNA but not that of preproenkephalin-A in the striatum and the subthalamic nucleus.
Positive_regulation (enhancement) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin-B in striatum
12) Confidence 0.49 Published 2007 Journal Biol. Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link 16950226 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
Increased DRD1 and dynorphin levels in medium spiny neurons may enhance the inhibition of DA neurons in the SNc, thereby normalizing overall DA release in the striatum.


Spec (may) Positive_regulation (enhance) of Gene_expression (levels) of dynorphin in striatum associated with dopamine and dynorphin
13) Confidence 0.49 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2736587 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.40
Increased DRD1 and dynorphin levels in medium spiny neurons may enhance the inhibition of DA neurons in the SNc, thereby normalizing overall DA release in the striatum.


Positive_regulation (Increased) of Gene_expression (levels) of dynorphin in striatum associated with dopamine and dynorphin
14) Confidence 0.49 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2736587 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.40
Because PDYN is expressed in a broad range of neural and endocrine cell types and is induced by a diverse array of stimuli, our limited survey of potential functional consequences of human-specific regulatory substitutions is unlikely to have identified all such changes.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Gene_expression (expressed) of PDYN in neural
15) Confidence 0.47 Published 2005 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC1283535 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The results of this study show that there is an increase in the levels of leu-enkephalin and dynorphin A in the frontal cortex of patients with DS as compared to the control group.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (levels) of leu-enkephalin in frontal cortex associated with down syndrome, dynorphin, urological neuroanatomy and enkephalin
16) Confidence 0.46 Published 1996 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 8834106 Disease Relevance 0.90 Pain Relevance 0.39
Enhanced expression of mRNA for dynorphin and substance P was observed in the dorsal horn on the same side as the partial nerve ligation.
Positive_regulation (Enhanced) of Gene_expression (expression) of dynorphin in dorsal horn associated with dynorphin, dorsal horn and substance p
17) Confidence 0.45 Published 1997 Journal Acta Physiol. Scand. Section Abstract Doc Link 9429659 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 1.21
Dynorphin produced brief, dose-related increases in drug effect ratings with both good and bad drug effects reported by different subjects.
Positive_regulation (increases) of Gene_expression (produced) of Dynorphin associated with dynorphin
18) Confidence 0.44 Published 1997 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 9190848 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.84
In addition, DREAM mRNA expression was significantly reduced in OA patients with chronic pain (pain intensity as measured by a visual analog scale scale of greater than 40), but no pdyn expression was detectable.


Positive_regulation (detectable) of Gene_expression (expression) of pdyn associated with pain, lasting pain and osteoarthritis
19) Confidence 0.37 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2483451 Disease Relevance 1.08 Pain Relevance 0.83
Therefore, the applied approach to increase endogenous dynorphin in the periphery appears not to be feasible, although increased expression of pdyn has been demonstrated in the spinal cord of dream-/- mice [11].
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of pdyn in spinal cord associated with dynorphin and spinal cord
20) Confidence 0.37 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2483451 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 1.16

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