INT78182

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Context Info
Confidence 0.43
First Reported 1998
Last Reported 2010
Negated 4
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 43
Total Number 46
Disease Relevance 46.39
Pain Relevance 6.78

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

biosynthetic process (ACCS)
Anatomy Link Frequency
plaque 4
chest 2
coronary artery 2
superior 2
body 2
ACCS (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Inflammation 252 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 175 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Angina 359 99.34 Very High Very High Very High
cva 126 98.76 Very High Very High Very High
metalloproteinase 55 98.20 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammatory response 16 98.08 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoarthritis 162 90.12 High High
Bioavailability 15 87.92 High High
ischemia 120 87.12 High High
Inflammatory mediators 2 87.00 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Acute Coronary Syndrome 975 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 278 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Compartment Syndromes 74 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Myocardial Infarction 495 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Thrombosis Related Under Development 6 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Death 185 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Hypertension 57 99.70 Very High Very High Very High
Rupture 54 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 415 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Angina 114 99.34 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The main objectives of this review are to highlight the recommendations of the Mexican guidelines for the management of ACS and provide some perspective regarding challenges to optimal management of ACS patients in Mexico.
Positive_regulation (management) of ACS associated with acute coronary syndrome
1) Confidence 0.43 Published 2009 Journal Am J Cardiovasc Drugs Section Abstract Doc Link 19463020 Disease Relevance 0.65 Pain Relevance 0.07
Several different hypotheses exist that have attempted to explain the pathological mechanisms that are involved in these conditions, however, it is not clear whether ACS are caused by variations of a single disease process or by several disease processes.
Spec (whether) Positive_regulation (caused) of ACS associated with disease
2) Confidence 0.40 Published 2005 Journal Atherosclerosis Section Abstract Doc Link 15721004 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0.09
In the multivariable analysis, older age, hypertension, angina pectoris, previous myocardial infarction, chest discomfort at presentation, short symptom duration, and abnormal ECG characteristics were associated with increased ACS risk (Table 3).
Positive_regulation (increased) of ACS in chest associated with acute coronary syndrome, angina, hypertension and myocardial infarction
3) Confidence 0.29 Published 2006 Journal BMC Med Inform Decis Mak Section Body Doc Link PMC1559601 Disease Relevance 1.49 Pain Relevance 0.17
Cardiological management of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) was an important implication of the National Service Framework for CHD [220].The joint BCS and RCP guidelines for the management of ACS without persistent ST segment elevation [221] have recommended that dedicated units for the assessment of low-risk patients with acute chest pain should be evaluated based upon evidence from the USA [222] and the UK [223].
Neg (without) Positive_regulation (elevation) of ACS in joint associated with acute coronary syndrome, angina and coronary artery disease
4) Confidence 0.26 Published 2003 Journal Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging Section Body Doc Link PMC2562441 Disease Relevance 0.99 Pain Relevance 0.15
Spontaneous retroperitoneal hematoma (SRH) is a rare clinical entity seen almost exclusively in association with anticoagulation states, coagulopathies and hemodialysis; that may cause ACS among patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and if treated inappropriately represents a high mortality rate.


Spec (may) Positive_regulation (cause) of ACS associated with compartment syndromes and hematoma
5) Confidence 0.24 Published 2010 Journal J Cardiothorac Surg Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2992055 Disease Relevance 1.01 Pain Relevance 0
It has been known for years that activation followed by aggregation of platelets to a thrombus is the major pathophysiological player causing ACS [3,4].
Positive_regulation (causing) of ACS in platelets associated with acute coronary syndrome and thrombosis
6) Confidence 0.23 Published 2008 Journal Current Cardiology Reviews Section Body Doc Link PMC2801861 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 0.03
CONCLUSIONS: Regional LVF assessment at rest improves diagnostic accuracy for ACS in patients with acute chest pain, especially in those with coronary artery disease and thus may be helpful to guide further management in patients at intermediate risk for ACS.


Positive_regulation (intermediate) of ACS in coronary artery
7) Confidence 0.22 Published 2010 Journal Circ Cardiovasc Imaging Section Body Doc Link 20484542 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
In a study of 24 patients with ACS, elevation in MMP-1 at 7 and 14 days after ACS were negatively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction.45 Thus, the slow elevation of MMP levels after ACS and the lack of clinical outcome data do not currently make MMPs useful biomarkers in ACS.
Positive_regulation (elevation) of ACS associated with acute coronary syndrome and metalloproteinase
8) Confidence 0.21 Published 2006 Journal Biomark Insights Section Body Doc Link PMC2716777 Disease Relevance 1.34 Pain Relevance 0.11
Seemingly better performances have been reported for previous ACS prediction models [8,12,14,24], but some of these models were both developed and tested in chest pain populations with clearly higher prevalence of ACS than ours.
Positive_regulation (prevalence) of ACS in chest associated with acute coronary syndrome and angina
9) Confidence 0.21 Published 2006 Journal BMC Med Inform Decis Mak Section Body Doc Link PMC1559601 Disease Relevance 0.67 Pain Relevance 0.19
Therefore, the continuous effort is needed to clarify the mechanism of the progression of coronary lesions which result in ACS.
Positive_regulation (result) of ACS associated with acute coronary syndrome
10) Confidence 0.20 Published 1998 Journal Nippon Rinsho Section Abstract Doc Link 9796314 Disease Relevance 1.37 Pain Relevance 0.07
This study calls into question the increasingly advocated notion that patients with ACS should be directed preferentially to tertiary centers for routine invasive treatment.
Positive_regulation (directed) of ACS associated with acute coronary syndrome
11) Confidence 0.18 Published 2006 Journal BMC Med Section Body Doc Link PMC1617111 Disease Relevance 0.79 Pain Relevance 0
Our findings may reflect widespread cortisol concentration elevations in our population, as has been seen before.60 Mean concentrations of cortisol in both our groups of patients appear higher compared with concentrations of hair cortisol measured in healthy young subjects.54 The higher average cortisol concentrations in both depressed and nondepressed CAD patients may reflect the ubiquitous presence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity, which may be inherently associated with HPA axis dysregulation.32,61,62 In addition, all of our CAD patients suffered from a significant event that may have led to ongoing psychosocial stress, another factor that can increase cortisol concentrations in hair.45,53 While having a recent ACS may also be associated with increased cortisol,60 time since ACS was not significantly associated with cortisol concentrations, or perceived stress, suggesting that these elevations persist.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (increased) of ACS in hair associated with stress, acute coronary syndrome, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension
12) Confidence 0.18 Published 2010 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2938288 Disease Relevance 1.10 Pain Relevance 0.09
MMP-9 is a gelatinase widely implicated in ventricular remodeling and the development of heart failure.42 MMPs are higly expressed in atheroslerotic plaques and subjects with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have increased plasma levels of MMP-1, -2 and -9.
Positive_regulation (increased) of ACS in plasma associated with acute coronary syndrome, metalloproteinase, myocardial infarction and ventricular remodeling
13) Confidence 0.15 Published 2006 Journal Biomark Insights Section Body Doc Link PMC2716777 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.19
It has recently recognized that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are critical mediators in ACS, because of their recruitment and activation before platelet aggregation.46 One of the principal mediators secreted on PMN activation is myeloperoxidase (MPO), a hemoproteine that is a microbicidal enzyme, but it has also potent proatherogenic properties: infact, MPO can oxidize LDL cholesterol, amplificating uptake by macrophages and perpetuating foam cell formation.47 Moreover, MPO promotes activation of metalloproteinases and destabilization and rupture of atherosclerotic plaques surface.48 Furthermore, MPO catalytically consumes endothelium-derived nitric oxide, reducing its bioavailability and impairing its vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory functions.49
Positive_regulation (mediators) of ACS in plaques associated with atherosclerotic plaque, acute coronary syndrome, inflammation, rupture, metalloproteinase, urological neuroanatomy and bioavailability
14) Confidence 0.15 Published 2006 Journal Biomark Insights Section Body Doc Link PMC2716777 Disease Relevance 1.65 Pain Relevance 0.19
Many studies have been shown that elevation of BNP as well as NT-proBNP levels obtained after the acute phase (median, 40 to 72 hours after symptoms onset) in patients with a broad range of ACS independently predicts mortality.17–19 However, in most of the reports, authors do not distinguish subjects with low ejection fraction and LV enlargement; in all studies, BNP levels appear related to increase of heart failure, predicting of cardiac remodeling and pump dysfunction.
Positive_regulation (range) of ACS in heart associated with acute coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction
15) Confidence 0.15 Published 2006 Journal Biomark Insights Section Body Doc Link PMC2716777 Disease Relevance 1.00 Pain Relevance 0.17
, were found to be significantly upregulated in the current ACS study, in contrast to previous results [17].
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of ACS
16) Confidence 0.15 Published 2010 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2911907 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.30
However, as the number of cytokines implicated in ACS increases, it will become important to determine whether they provide independent prognostic information apart from more established inflammatory biomarkers such as C-reactive protein.


Positive_regulation (increases) of ACS associated with acute coronary syndrome, inflammation and cytokine
17) Confidence 0.15 Published 2006 Journal Biomark Insights Section Body Doc Link PMC2716784 Disease Relevance 1.87 Pain Relevance 0.41
In a study of 24 patients with ACS, elevation in MMP-1 at 7 and 14 days after ACS were negatively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction.45 Thus, the slow elevation of MMP levels after ACS and the lack of clinical outcome data do not currently make MMPs useful biomarkers in ACS.
Positive_regulation (elevation) of ACS associated with acute coronary syndrome and metalloproteinase
18) Confidence 0.14 Published 2006 Journal Biomark Insights Section Body Doc Link PMC2716777 Disease Relevance 1.40 Pain Relevance 0.11
In line with earlier studies, IL-1ra levels of ACS in the current study were upregulated, although the reported relative increases in conditoned serum differed an order of a magnitude with those from the current study [12,17].
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of ACS
19) Confidence 0.14 Published 2010 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2911907 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.16
In particular Il-10, one of the anti-inflammatory cytokines upregulated in ACS, has been shown to have a half-life of several hours under these conditions [39].
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of ACS associated with inflammation and cytokine
20) Confidence 0.14 Published 2010 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2911907 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.35

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