INT796

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Context Info
Confidence 0.78
First Reported 1977
Last Reported 2010
Negated 45
Speculated 69
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 1902
Total Number 1971
Disease Relevance 275.47
Pain Relevance 1057.59

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
striatum 128
neurons 127
brain 95
hypothalamus 43
nucleus 40
Penk (Rattus norvegicus)
Penk - S2L (2) Penk - A2M (1)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 9521 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 1700 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 1562 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 1316 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 1186 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 1089 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 899 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 849 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 847 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nucleus accumbens 820 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cold Sores 2238 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 559 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 403 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 399 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 197 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 135 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Natriuresis 7 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Convulsion 210 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Congenital Anomalies 24 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Increased Venous Pressure Under Development 104 99.96 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Glial progenitors strongly express the proenkephalin (PEnk) gene during their proliferation in the subventricular zone of the neocortex.
Gene_expression (express) of proenkephalin in neocortex
1) Confidence 0.78 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9221949 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
Therefore, it was investigated in cultured neocortical astroglial cells, whether the basal and stimulated expression of the PEnk gene occurred during different phases of the cell cycle.
Gene_expression (expression) of PEnk gene
2) Confidence 0.78 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9221949 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
Glial progenitors strongly express the proenkephalin (PEnk) gene during their proliferation in the subventricular zone of the neocortex.
Gene_expression (express) of PEnk in neocortex
3) Confidence 0.78 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9221949 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
Expression of the proenkephalin gene in cultured astroglial cells: analysis of cell cycle dependence.
Gene_expression (Expression) of proenkephalin associated with addiction and enkephalin
4) Confidence 0.78 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 9221949 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.25
Activation of protein kinases A and C with 8Br.cAMP and tetradecanoylphorbolacetate, respectively, enhanced the PEnk gene expression only during the G1 phase.
Gene_expression (expression) of PEnk gene
5) Confidence 0.78 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9221949 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
Repeated MPEP (6 x 10 mg/kg ip) administration did not influence PENK expression in naïve rats, but diminished that increased by haloperidol.
Gene_expression (expression) of PENK
6) Confidence 0.78 Published 2002 Journal Amino Acids Section Abstract Doc Link 12373537 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.30
Apomorphine pretreatment significantly attenuated the elevation in ENK produced by chronic injections of NL.
Gene_expression (produced) of ENK associated with enkephalin
7) Confidence 0.78 Published 1991 Journal Psychopharmacology (Berl.) Section Abstract Doc Link 1881995 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.84
To test whether the distribution of PEnk gene expression depends on the formation of the local circuitry, we examined the role of glutamate neurons in the expression of the gene in slice cultures of rat frontoparietal cortex.
Gene_expression (expression) of PEnk gene in frontoparietal associated with glutamate
8) Confidence 0.78 Published 1998 Journal Cereb. Cortex Section Abstract Doc Link 9863697 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.18
We concluded that glutamate neurons are involved in the development and maintenance of the PEnk gene expression in the neocortex.
Gene_expression (expression) of PEnk gene in neocortex associated with glutamate
9) Confidence 0.78 Published 1998 Journal Cereb. Cortex Section Abstract Doc Link 9863697 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.26
Glutamatergic control of the expression of the proenkephalin gene in rat frontoparietal cortical slice cultures.
Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin in frontoparietal associated with enkephalin
10) Confidence 0.78 Published 1998 Journal Cereb. Cortex Section Title Doc Link 9863697 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.32
The expression of the proenkephalin (PEnk) gene in rat neocortex develops during the first two postnatal weeks in an outside first-inside last mode that is opposite to the gradient of neurogenesis.
Gene_expression (expression) of PEnk in neocortex associated with neurodegenerative disease
11) Confidence 0.78 Published 1998 Journal Cereb. Cortex Section Abstract Doc Link 9863697 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.12
Systemic administration of SCH 58261 (5 mg/kg i.p., 3 times, every 3 h, 10 min before haloperidol), partially decreased the haloperidol-induced catalepsy and the increase in the PENK mRNA expression in both dorsolateral and ventrolateral parts of the striatum at all three examined levels.
Spec (examined) Gene_expression (expression) of PENK mRNA in striatum associated with catalepsy
12) Confidence 0.78 Published 2003 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 12834887 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0.41
However, delta9-THC treatment induced PENK gene expression to the same extent in both hypothalamic nuclei of intact, castrated and DHT-replaced males.
Gene_expression (expression) of PENK gene
13) Confidence 0.78 Published 2002 Journal J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) Section Abstract Doc Link 12503826 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.16
In females, ovariectomy decreased PENK gene expression in PVN and VMN. delta9-THC administration increased PENK gene expression in castrated females, but had no effect in the oestradiol-replaced group.
Gene_expression (expression) of PENK gene in VMN
14) Confidence 0.78 Published 2002 Journal J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) Section Abstract Doc Link 12503826 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.18
However, whether gonadal steroids regulate delta9-THC effects on PENK gene expression in the hypothalamus of male and female rats remains unknown.
Gene_expression (expression) of PENK gene in gonadal
15) Confidence 0.78 Published 2002 Journal J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) Section Abstract Doc Link 12503826 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.05
Chronic exposure to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) produces an activation of preproenkephalin (PENK) gene expression in the rat hypothalamus.
Gene_expression (expression) of PENK in hypothalamus
16) Confidence 0.78 Published 2002 Journal J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) Section Abstract Doc Link 12503826 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.05
Gender differences in proenkephalin gene expression response to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the hypothalamus of the rat.
Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin gene in hypothalamus associated with enkephalin
17) Confidence 0.78 Published 2002 Journal J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) Section Title Doc Link 12503826 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.24
Chronic exposure to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) produces an activation of preproenkephalin (PENK) gene expression in the rat hypothalamus.
Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin in hypothalamus
18) Confidence 0.78 Published 2002 Journal J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) Section Abstract Doc Link 12503826 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.05
In females, ovariectomy decreased PENK gene expression in PVN and VMN. delta9-THC administration increased PENK gene expression in castrated females, but had no effect in the oestradiol-replaced group.
Gene_expression (expression) of PENK gene in VMN
19) Confidence 0.78 Published 2002 Journal J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) Section Abstract Doc Link 12503826 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.19
Taken together, these results suggest gender differences in the response of chronic exposure to cannabinoids on PENK gene expression in the hypothalamus.
Gene_expression (expression) of PENK gene in hypothalamus associated with cannabinoid
20) Confidence 0.78 Published 2002 Journal J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) Section Abstract Doc Link 12503826 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.19

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