INT798

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1978
Last Reported 2010
Negated 10
Speculated 13
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 394
Total Number 407
Disease Relevance 78.53
Pain Relevance 203.07

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
striatum 87
neurons 42
hippocampus 33
hypothalamus 23
PVN 21
Penk (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 1719 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 448 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 388 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
amygdala 362 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 357 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nucleus accumbens 301 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hippocampus 244 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 183 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 152 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 133 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Stress 136 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Catalepsy 45 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cold Sores 894 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoglycemia 10 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Fever 2 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 413 99.86 Very High Very High Very High
Herpes Simplex Virus 66 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 19 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Bordatella Infection 11 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 166 99.66 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Activation of protein kinases A and C with 8Br.cAMP and tetradecanoylphorbolacetate, respectively, enhanced the PEnk gene expression only during the G1 phase.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Gene_expression (expression) of PEnk gene
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9221949 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
Systemic administration of SCH 58261 (5 mg/kg i.p., 3 times, every 3 h, 10 min before haloperidol), partially decreased the haloperidol-induced catalepsy and the increase in the PENK mRNA expression in both dorsolateral and ventrolateral parts of the striatum at all three examined levels.
Spec (examined) Positive_regulation (increase) of Spec (examined) Gene_expression (expression) of PENK mRNA in striatum associated with catalepsy
2) Confidence 0.70 Published 2003 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 12834887 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0.41
Chronic exposure to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) produces an activation of preproenkephalin (PENK) gene expression in the rat hypothalamus.
Positive_regulation (activation) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin in hypothalamus
3) Confidence 0.70 Published 2002 Journal J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) Section Abstract Doc Link 12503826 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.05
In females, ovariectomy decreased PENK gene expression in PVN and VMN. delta9-THC administration increased PENK gene expression in castrated females, but had no effect in the oestradiol-replaced group.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK gene in VMN
4) Confidence 0.70 Published 2002 Journal J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) Section Abstract Doc Link 12503826 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.19
In contrast, increases in preproenkephalin messenger RNA expression were seen acutely in the dentate gyrus, with a decrease seen in the entorhinal cortex.
Positive_regulation (increases) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin messenger RNA in cortex
5) Confidence 0.70 Published 1995 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 7609877 Disease Relevance 0.95 Pain Relevance 0.26
TIQ administered acutely at the dose of 100 mg/kg ip increased the PENK mRNA expression in the dorsal part of the striatum at two levels I and II (rostral and central striatum, respectively).
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK mRNA in dorsal
6) Confidence 0.70 Published 2003 Journal Pol J Pharmacol Section Abstract Doc Link 14730088 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.20
Therefore, it has been suggested that an enhanced striatal PENK mRNA expression may reflect to some extent an increase in the activity of the GABAergic striatopallidal pathway whose overactivity has been suggested to take place in the course of Parkinson's disease.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK mRNA associated with gabaergic and disease
7) Confidence 0.70 Published 2003 Journal Pol J Pharmacol Section Abstract Doc Link 14730088 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.22
Depolarization with potassium chloride (KCl) or veratridine increases the expression of PENK mRNA in a time-dependent fashion, with a maximal increase of sixfold.
Positive_regulation (increases) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK mRNA
8) Confidence 0.70 Published 1991 Journal Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2029727 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.33
We show here that exposing rats to the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide induces an intense and transient expression of proenkephalin in adrenal glands and lymph nodes.
Positive_regulation (induces) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin in lymph nodes
9) Confidence 0.70 Published 1994 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 8275961 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
Lipopolysaccharide induces proenkephalin gene expression in rat lymph nodes and adrenal glands.
Positive_regulation (induces) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin in lymph nodes associated with enkephalin
10) Confidence 0.70 Published 1994 Journal Endocrinology Section Title Doc Link 8275961 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.15
This in vivo expression of proenkephalin was enhanced by adrenaline.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin
11) Confidence 0.70 Published 1994 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 8275961 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
Increased enkephalin gene expression in the hippocampus following seizures.
Positive_regulation (Increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin in hippocampus associated with convulsion, hippocampus and enkephalin
12) Confidence 0.70 Published 1986 Journal NIDA Res. Monogr. Section Title Doc Link 3123957 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.34
In several cell types, the expression of the proenkephalin (PEnk) gene is enhanced after activation of protein kinase A.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Gene_expression (expression) of PEnk
13) Confidence 0.70 Published 1994 Journal Neurochem. Int. Section Abstract Doc Link 7820071 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
When used together with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor Rolipram (1 microM), the effect of tetradecanoylphorbolacetate (0.01 microM) was potentiated. 8-Bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (0.01-1 mM) also enhanced the expression of the proenkephalin gene.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin gene
14) Confidence 0.70 Published 1994 Journal Neurochem. Int. Section Abstract Doc Link 7820071 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
These results indicate that glucocorticoid treatment is required for maximal proenkephalin gene expression and EC peptide biosynthesis in cultured glands.
Positive_regulation (required) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin gene in glands
15) Confidence 0.70 Published 1988 Journal Mol. Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 3412328 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.33
Haloperidol induced persistent VCM that was associated with increased striatal expression of preproenkephalin mRNA.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin mRNA
16) Confidence 0.70 Published 2003 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 14642644 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.21
Memantine inhibited the development of haloperidol-induced persistent VCM and attenuated the increase in preproenkephalin mRNA expression.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin mRNA
17) Confidence 0.70 Published 2003 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 14642644 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.22
Differential expression of preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin mRNAs in striatal neurons: high levels of preproenkephalin expression depend on cerebral cortical afferents.
Positive_regulation (levels) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin in neurons associated with enkephalin
18) Confidence 0.70 Published 1988 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Title Doc Link 2904494 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.28
Preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin expression was increased in spinal cord areas adjacent to the site of quisqualic injection and in cortical regions associated with nociceptive function, preproenkephalin in the cingulate cortex and preprodynorphin in the parietal cortex, both ipsilaterally and contralaterally at various time-points following injury.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of Preproenkephalin in parietal cortex associated with nociception, injury and spinal cord
19) Confidence 0.70 Published 2000 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 10924963 Disease Relevance 0.85 Pain Relevance 0.85
Moreover, a mixed mGluR8 agonist/AMPA antagonist, (R,S)-3,4-DCPG, administered systemically evoked catalepsy and enhanced both the catalepsy and PENK expression induced by haloperidol.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK associated with catalepsy, antagonist and agonist
20) Confidence 0.70 Published 2007 Journal Amino Acids Section Abstract Doc Link 16699817 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 0.42

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