INT8223

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Context Info
Confidence 0.69
First Reported 1986
Last Reported 2009
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 53
Total Number 54
Disease Relevance 6.84
Pain Relevance 14.70

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (PENK) extracellular region (PENK)
Anatomy Link Frequency
telencephalon 3
Leydig cells 3
brain 3
striatum 3
esophagus 3
PENK (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 154 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
dopamine receptor 20 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 20 99.42 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 37 99.18 Very High Very High Very High
Central grey 2 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Limbic system 6 99.06 Very High Very High Very High
long-term potentiation 2 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
Nerve growth factor 4 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
noradrenaline 9 98.72 Very High Very High Very High
dexamethasone 8 98.64 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Neuroblastoma 12 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 2 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 41 98.88 Very High Very High Very High
Glioma 2 98.72 Very High Very High Very High
Pheochromocytoma 6 98.36 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 22 97.72 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 4 96.32 Very High Very High Very High
Fibrosarcoma 1 96.32 Very High Very High Very High
Convulsion 2 90.96 High High
Aging 4 84.80 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Enkephalin biosynthesis is coupled to secretory activity via transcription of the proenkephalin A gene.
Transcription (transcription) of proenkephalin A associated with enkephalin
1) Confidence 0.69 Published 1992 Journal J. Physiol. Paris Section Title Doc Link 1364196 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.22
THE immediate-early gene zif/268 is induced in the hippocampal dentate gyrus by stimuli leading to long-term potentiation (LTP), and is though then to alter the rate of transcription of other genes involved in hippocampal plasticity, such as the proenkephalin (Penk) gene.
Transcription (transcription) of Penk in dentate gyrus associated with long-term potentiation
2) Confidence 0.69 Published 1994 Journal Neuroreport Section Abstract Doc Link 7948847 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.09
THE immediate-early gene zif/268 is induced in the hippocampal dentate gyrus by stimuli leading to long-term potentiation (LTP), and is though then to alter the rate of transcription of other genes involved in hippocampal plasticity, such as the proenkephalin (Penk) gene.
Transcription (transcription) of proenkephalin in dentate gyrus associated with long-term potentiation
3) Confidence 0.69 Published 1994 Journal Neuroreport Section Abstract Doc Link 7948847 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.09
Several lines of evidence suggest that receptor-mediated transcription of proenkephalin involves a reversible conformational change from duplex to a hairpin state of the enhancer [McMurray, C.T., Wilson, W.D., & Douglass, J.O. (1991) Proc.
Transcription (transcription) of proenkephalin
4) Confidence 0.69 Published 1994 Journal Biochemistry Section Abstract Doc Link 7918415 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.07
ATF-3 expressed in bacteria or from rabbit reticulocyte lysates binds to the proenkephalin CRE-2 element as a homodimer and as a heterodimer with Jun-D, another activator of proenkephalin transcription.
Transcription (transcription) of proenkephalin in reticulocyte
5) Confidence 0.69 Published 1994 Journal Mol. Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 8152431 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.08
In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that different signal-transduction mechanisms regulate the transcription of proenkephalin, proopiomelanocortin and nerve growth factor mRNA.
Transcription (transcription) of proenkephalin in nerve associated with nerve growth factor
6) Confidence 0.69 Published 1989 Journal Pharmacol. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2698474 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.27
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates proenkephalin-A mRNA expression in regions of the human esophagus, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and gallbladder tissues which provides information for the future mapping of proenkephalin-A mRNA and protein expression/co-expression at the cellular level.


Transcription (expression) of proenkephalin-A in esophagus
7) Confidence 0.69 Published 2006 Journal Eur Surg Res Section Body Doc Link 16940731 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
This study reveals heterogeneous distribution of dense preproenkephalin messenger RNA in the basal ganglia and high levels of preproenkephalin messenger RNA in specific limbic-associated regions of the monkey telencephalon.
Transcription (distribution) of preproenkephalin in telencephalon
8) Confidence 0.68 Published 1995 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 7777158 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
Distribution of preproenkephalin messenger RNA in the basal ganglia and limbic-associated regions of the monkey telencephalon.
Transcription (Distribution) of preproenkephalin in basal ganglia associated with enkephalin
9) Confidence 0.68 Published 1995 Journal Neuroscience Section Title Doc Link 7777158 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.15
In the monkey striatum, the distribution of preproenkephalin messenger RNA is heterogeneous.
Transcription (distribution) of preproenkephalin in striatum
10) Confidence 0.68 Published 1995 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 7777158 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
A highly sensitive Northern blot assay detects multiple proenkephalin A-like mRNAs in human caudate nucleus and pheochromocytoma.
Transcription (detects) of proenkephalin A in caudate nucleus associated with enkephalin and pheochromocytoma
11) Confidence 0.67 Published 1988 Journal Biosci. Rep. Section Title Doc Link 3207862 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.15
Our previous studies have shown that the hamster adrenal, like the human, contains high levels of preproenkephalin (PPenk) mRNA and enkephalin peptides, and may serve as a mammalian model for the in vivo study of proenkephalin (Penk) gene expression, peptide biosynthesis, and release.
Transcription (peptides) of Penk associated with enkephalin
12) Confidence 0.67 Published 1994 Journal DNA Cell Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 8286036 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.23
These results indicate that [Met5]-enkephalin, a naturally occurring pentapeptide that is derived from proenkephalin A, is a potent inhibitor of cell growth.
Transcription (derived) of proenkephalin A associated with enkephalin
13) Confidence 0.67 Published 1989 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2758319 Disease Relevance 0.73 Pain Relevance 1.04
In contrast, high levels of proenkephalin messenger RNA were more widely expressed in the hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray, various mesencephalic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and ventral pallidum; brain regions associated with endocrine-reticular-motor continuum of the limbic system.
Transcription (expressed) of proenkephalin in hypothalamus associated with limbic system and central grey
14) Confidence 0.67 Published 1996 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 9157322 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.65
Our previous studies have shown that the hamster adrenal, like the human, contains high levels of preproenkephalin (PPenk) mRNA and enkephalin peptides, and may serve as a mammalian model for the in vivo study of proenkephalin (Penk) gene expression, peptide biosynthesis, and release.
Transcription (peptides) of enkephalin associated with enkephalin
15) Confidence 0.61 Published 1994 Journal DNA Cell Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 8286036 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.23
Triple (3 h apart), bilateral, intrastriatal administration of selective antagonists of mGluR1: (S)-(+)-alpha-amino-4-carboxy-2-methylbenzeneacetic acid (3 x 5 microg/0.5 microl) or 7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate (3 x 2.5 microg/0.5 microl), reversed the haloperidol-induced increases in proenkephalin mRNA levels in the rostral and central regions of the striatum.
Transcription (levels) of proenkephalin in striatum associated with antagonist
16) Confidence 0.53 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 14622918 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.38
In general, there was a medial to lateral and ventral to dorsal gradient of preproenkephalin mRNA observed within the striatum of normal controls.
Transcription (gradient) of preproenkephalin in ventral
17) Confidence 0.53 Published 1997 Journal Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. Section Abstract Doc Link 9218271 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.31
In general, there was a medial to lateral and ventral to dorsal gradient of preproenkephalin mRNA observed within the striatum of normal controls.
Transcription (observed) of preproenkephalin in ventral
18) Confidence 0.53 Published 1997 Journal Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. Section Abstract Doc Link 9218271 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.32
METHODS: In this study we have analyzed the expression of proenkephalin-A mRNA in the human esophagus, gastrointestinal tract and surrounding organs by means of reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR).
Spec (analyzed) Transcription (expression) of proenkephalin-A in esophagus
19) Confidence 0.52 Published 2006 Journal Eur Surg Res Section Body Doc Link 16940731 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
RESULTS: The present study demonstrates proenkephalin-A mRNA expression in the human esophagus, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and gallbladder.
Transcription (expression) of proenkephalin-A in pancreas
20) Confidence 0.52 Published 2006 Journal Eur Surg Res Section Body Doc Link 16940731 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0

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