INT82743

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Context Info
Confidence 0.78
First Reported 1999
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 48
Total Number 48
Disease Relevance 44.28
Pain Relevance 8.77

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (SPINK1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
liver 4
acinar cells 2
lung 2
lymph node 1
fat 1
SPINK1 (Homo sapiens)
SPINK1 - N34S (4)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Chronic pancreatitis 1051 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
fibrosis 128 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 134 97.76 Very High Very High Very High
peptic ulcer disease 1 90.96 High High
nud 10 88.48 High High
alcohol 47 74.64 Quite High
cytokine 27 68.48 Quite High
abdominal pain 23 46.00 Quite Low
imagery 26 43.20 Quite Low
Pain 43 31.40 Quite Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cancer 632 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 186 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Pancreatitis 1669 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Rectal Cancer 189 99.94 Very High Very High Very High
Cystic Fibrosis 99 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Metastasis 189 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
Malignant Neoplastic Disease 63 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disorder Of Lipid Metabolism 4 98.76 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 776 98.52 Very High Very High Very High
Hypercalcemia 179 98.46 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The etiology of hereditary pancreatitis is unequivocally linked to trypsin-associated pathway of recurrent acute pancreatitis leading to CP, but the effect is to such a degree that normal expression of SPINK is not sufficient to prevent it.
Gene_expression (expression) of SPINK associated with pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis
1) Confidence 0.78 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2289874 Disease Relevance 0.98 Pain Relevance 0.61
Transgenic expression of SPINK1 did not hinder trypsinogen activation, but reduced trypsin activity after supramaximal stimulation with cerulein.
Gene_expression (expression) of SPINK1 associated with targeted disruption
2) Confidence 0.70 Published 2007 Journal Orphanet J Rare Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC1774562 Disease Relevance 0.75 Pain Relevance 0
However, normal s-TATI levels have been found after total pancreatectomy showing that TATI is produced in several tissues [26,27].
Gene_expression (produced) of TATI
3) Confidence 0.68 Published 2010 Journal BMC Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC2946315 Disease Relevance 1.19 Pain Relevance 0.04
SPINK1 is an acute phase protein whose gene expression and protein concentrations are markedly upregulated by inflammation [16], [17], [18].
Gene_expression (expression) of SPINK1 associated with inflammation
4) Confidence 0.67 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2289874 Disease Relevance 1.11 Pain Relevance 0.74
CaR, calcium sensing receptor; CASR, calcium receptor gene; CP, chronic pancreatitis; FHH, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia; HP, hereditary pancreatitis; ICP, idiopathic chronic pancreatitis; PRSS1; cationic trypsinogen gene; SPINK1, serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 gene.


Gene_expression (gene) of serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 associated with pancreatitis, hypercalcemia and chronic pancreatitis
5) Confidence 0.67 Published 2003 Journal BMC Gastroenterol Section Body Doc Link PMC317302 Disease Relevance 1.43 Pain Relevance 0.79
CaR, calcium sensing receptor; CASR, calcium receptor gene; CP, chronic pancreatitis; FHH, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia; HP, hereditary pancreatitis; ICP, idiopathic chronic pancreatitis; PRSS1; cationic trypsinogen gene; SPINK1, serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 gene.


Gene_expression (gene) of SPINK1 associated with pancreatitis, hypercalcemia and chronic pancreatitis
6) Confidence 0.67 Published 2003 Journal BMC Gastroenterol Section Body Doc Link PMC317302 Disease Relevance 1.49 Pain Relevance 0.84
Initially an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern was suspected for the N34S SPINK1 mutation resulting in CP in homozygous patients while another heterozygous subgroup seems to suffer from disease due to a combination of genetic defects of SPINK1 and yet unidentified genes [12].
Gene_expression (mutation) of SPINK1 (N34S) associated with disease and chronic pancreatitis
7) Confidence 0.67 Published 2003 Journal BMC Gastroenterol Section Body Doc Link PMC317302 Disease Relevance 1.26 Pain Relevance 0.72
We describe a family with members suffering from both CP and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) to investigate the association of calcium sensing receptor gene (CASR) and SPINK1 mutations with CP.


Gene_expression (mutations) of SPINK1 associated with hypercalcemia and chronic pancreatitis
8) Confidence 0.67 Published 2003 Journal BMC Gastroenterol Section Body Doc Link PMC317302 Disease Relevance 1.41 Pain Relevance 0.59
Although it is well known that chronic pancreatitis is predisposed by heterozygosity for CFTR mutations, little is known about the combination of CFTR mutations with PRSS1 or SPINK1 mutations.
Gene_expression (mutations) of SPINK1 associated with chronic pancreatitis
9) Confidence 0.66 Published 2010 Journal BMC Gastroenterol Section Body Doc Link PMC2970583 Disease Relevance 0.48 Pain Relevance 0.10
The paper presents the data available in the literature on mutations in known genes in pancreatitis, such as cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1), pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI/SPINK1), cystic fibrosis (CFTR), and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genes, as well as the new candidate gene--chymotrypsinogen (CTRC).
Gene_expression (inhibitor) of SPINK1 associated with fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis and disorder of lipid metabolism
10) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal Ter. Arkh. Section Abstract Doc Link 20387681 Disease Relevance 0.75 Pain Relevance 0.20
The paper presents the data available in the literature on mutations in known genes in pancreatitis, such as cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1), pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI/SPINK1), cystic fibrosis (CFTR), and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genes, as well as the new candidate gene--chymotrypsinogen (CTRC).
Gene_expression (inhibitor) of PSTI associated with fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis and disorder of lipid metabolism
11) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal Ter. Arkh. Section Abstract Doc Link 20387681 Disease Relevance 0.75 Pain Relevance 0.20
PSTI, LPL, PRSS1, and CFTR genes presented no association with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis.
Neg (no) Gene_expression (presented) of PSTI
12) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. Section Body Doc Link 18986377 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0
Some authors state that compound heterozygous CFTR carriers have a distinct elevated risk for the development of chronic pancreatitis, which is even higher when an additional SPINK1 mutation is present [51,54].
Gene_expression (present) of SPINK1 associated with chronic pancreatitis
13) Confidence 0.61 Published 2007 Journal Orphanet J Rare Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC1774562 Disease Relevance 0.97 Pain Relevance 0.66
Transgenic expression of rat SPINK1 in mice reduced the severity of experimental secretagogue-induced pancreatitis [68].
Gene_expression (expression) of SPINK1 associated with targeted disruption and pancreatitis
14) Confidence 0.61 Published 2007 Journal Orphanet J Rare Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC1774562 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0
The trypsinogen und SPINK1 mutation database
Gene_expression (database) of SPINK1
15) Confidence 0.61 Published 2007 Journal Orphanet J Rare Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC1774562 Disease Relevance 0.95 Pain Relevance 0.20
The indication for PRSS1 and SPINK1 mutation testing in symptomatic patients should be one of the following:
Gene_expression (testing) of SPINK1
16) Confidence 0.61 Published 2007 Journal Orphanet J Rare Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC1774562 Disease Relevance 0.88 Pain Relevance 0.28
Beyond the hitherto discussed aspects the detection of PRSS1 and SPINK1 mutations will lead to a correct classification of the disease, helping the affected individual to better understand their disease and clearing out misclassifications (e.g. alcoholic chronic pancreatitis).
Gene_expression (detection) of SPINK1 associated with disease and chronic pancreatitis
17) Confidence 0.61 Published 2007 Journal Orphanet J Rare Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC1774562 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 0.30
However, none of control subjects was positive for anti-PSTI antibodies.
Gene_expression (positive) of PSTI
18) Confidence 0.61 Published 2006 Journal Pancreas Section Body Doc Link 16804408 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
We have previously shown that high expression of TATI in tumour tissue correlates with an adverse prognosis in two independent cohorts of CRC patients, including the cohort studied here, in which t-TATI was also significantly associated with a reduced time to metachronous liver metastasis [3].
Gene_expression (expression) of TATI in liver associated with cancer, colon cancer and metastasis
19) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal BMC Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC2946315 Disease Relevance 0.62 Pain Relevance 0
TATI is produced at high concentration in the pancreas, from which it leaks into serum in pancreatic disease [24].
Gene_expression (produced) of TATI in pancreas associated with pancreatitis
20) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal BMC Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC2946315 Disease Relevance 0.99 Pain Relevance 0.05

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