INT8530

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1987
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 4
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 48
Total Number 52
Disease Relevance 11.67
Pain Relevance 16.34

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
striatum 5
nucleus 3
nucleus accumbens 3
caudate-putamen 2
spinal cord 2
Penk (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dopamine 160 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 110 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 11 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Endogenous opioid 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nucleus accumbens 47 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
electroacupuncture 16 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
dopamine receptor 6 99.70 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 23 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 6 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 19 99.50 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Lymphatic System Cancer 6 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 11 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 14 99.50 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 24 99.10 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 10 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
Mastocytoma 3 98.90 Very High Very High Very High
Dyskinesias 35 98.72 Very High Very High Very High
Pressure And Volume Under Development 1 98.68 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperalgesia 4 98.48 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 16 97.82 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The overall distribution of preproenkephalin mRNA was found to be similar to that observed in other species in which it has been measured, with the highest levels of expression located in the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens.
Transcription (distribution) of preproenkephalin in nucleus accumbens associated with nucleus accumbens
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9191091 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.16
We examined the relationships among concentrations of Met-enkephalin, preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA, and PTS-1 activity in mice exposed to ethanol.
Transcription (concentrations) of preproenkephalin associated with enkephalin
2) Confidence 0.69 Published 1997 Journal J. Neurosci. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9160250 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.98
Preproenkephalin A (PPA) mRNA expression was studied by Northern blot and in situ hybridization in cell lines (rat glioma C6, rat hepatoma HTC, human neuroblastoma IMR32, mouse neuroblastoma NS20Y, rat fibroblast FR3T3, human bladder carcinoma EJ, human vulva carcinoma A431, myelocytic leukemia HL60, rat adrenal carcinoma Y1) and in brain tumours (implanted C6 cells).
Transcription (expression) of PPA in bladder associated with myeloid leukemia, adrenal cancer, bladder cancer, hepatocellular cancer, glioma, neuroblastoma, carcinoma and brain tumor
3) Confidence 0.69 Published 1989 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 2739883 Disease Relevance 1.13 Pain Relevance 0
In contrast to PDYN, the PENK mRNA level was reduced in the nucleus accumbens and remained unchanged in the striatum following repeated morphine administration.
Transcription (level) of PENK in striatum associated with nucleus accumbens and morphine
4) Confidence 0.62 Published 1997 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 9574833 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.96
Effects of single (20 mg/kg i.p.) and repeated morphine administration (increasing doses: from 10 to 50 mg/kg i.p. twice daily for 7 days) on the proenkephalin (PENK), prodynorphin (PDYN) and dopamine D2 receptor (D2) mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens and striatum of the mouse were investigated.
Transcription (levels) of PENK in striatum associated with nucleus accumbens, dopamine and morphine
5) Confidence 0.60 Published 1997 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 9574833 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.70
To investigate the nature of the cis-acting elements that determine selective transcription of the proenkephalin gene in male germ cells, two rat proenkephalin-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase fusion genes containing the two different promoter regions as well as 1.6 or 0.3 kilobases, respectively, of 5'-flanking sequence were expressed in transgenic mice.
Spec (determine) Transcription (transcription) of proenkephalin gene in male germ cells associated with targeted disruption
6) Confidence 0.60 Published 1991 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 1748659 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0
Transgenic mice thus provide a useful model for the localization and characterization of cis-acting elements mediating transcription of the proenkephalin gene from its germ cell-specific promoter.
Transcription (transcription) of proenkephalin gene in germ cell associated with targeted disruption
7) Confidence 0.60 Published 1991 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 1748659 Disease Relevance 0.42 Pain Relevance 0
Preproenkephalin (PPNK) mRNA expression has been detected in many cells of the immune system, including monocytes and lymphocytes.
Transcription (expression) of Preproenkephalin in lymphocytes
8) Confidence 0.56 Published 1999 Journal Immunol. Cell Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 10540203 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.31
The presence of preproenkephalin mRNA in tumor cell lines derived from myeloid and mast cells was analyzed by RNA dot blot hybridization.
Spec (analyzed) Transcription (presence) of preproenkephalin in mast cells associated with cancer
9) Confidence 0.53 Published 1987 Journal J. Neurosci. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 3500325 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0
A B-cell lymphoma was negative for preproenkephalin mRNA, but several T-cell lymphomas were positive.
Neg (negative) Transcription (negative) of preproenkephalin in T-cell associated with lymphatic system cancer
10) Confidence 0.53 Published 1987 Journal J. Neurosci. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 3500325 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0
A mastocytoma and two macrophage cell lines were found to have high levels of preproenkephalin mRNA.
Transcription (levels) of preproenkephalin in macrophage associated with mastocytoma
11) Confidence 0.53 Published 1987 Journal J. Neurosci. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 3500325 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0
We used a solution hybridization RNAse protection assay to measure total levels of preproenkephalin mRNA and to determine the ratio of full-length to truncated forms in the pituitary and 12 brain regions of the guinea-pig.
Transcription (levels) of preproenkephalin in pituitary
12) Confidence 0.52 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9191091 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.15
Proenkephalin mRNA is present in Golgi II neurons as well as in a set of neurons in the deep part of the molecular layer.
Transcription (present) of Proenkephalin in neurons
13) Confidence 0.52 Published 1988 Journal Neuron Section Abstract Doc Link 3272189 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0
The neuronal excitation caused by KA leads to increases in the expression of a variety of genes, including immediate-early genes and opioid peptides derived from proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN).
Transcription (expression) of PENK in neuronal associated with opioid
14) Confidence 0.51 Published 2006 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 16300887 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.17
Furthermore, incubation of spinal cord explants with activin A or BMP-7 increased POMC and/or PENK mRNA levels.
Transcription (levels) of PENK in spinal cord associated with spinal cord
15) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 20107078 Disease Relevance 0.42 Pain Relevance 0.94
In animals injected with haloperidol for 9 days, levels of the striatal PENK mRNA were increased by 100%.
Transcription (levels) of PENK
16) Confidence 0.46 Published 1995 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8750842 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
We studied the effects of 10 micrograms of 17-beta-estradiol-3-benzoate treatment on preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA expression in female ovariectomized (OVX) Swiss Webster mice after 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, or 48 h, using the in situ hybridization technique.
Transcription (expression) of preproenkephalin
17) Confidence 0.46 Published 1996 Journal J. Chem. Neuroanat. Section Abstract Doc Link 9001946 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.03
Preproenkephalin mRNA expression in nucleus caudalis neurons is enhanced by trigeminal stimulation.
Transcription (expression) of Preproenkephalin in nucleus associated with enkephalin
18) Confidence 0.46 Published 1989 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 2615596 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.22
Electrical stimulation of trigeminal afferents increases expression of preproenkephalin mRNA in neurons of laminae I and II of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis in animals sacrificed 6 hours after the end of stimulation.
Transcription (expression) of preproenkephalin in nucleus
19) Confidence 0.46 Published 1989 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2615596 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.12
Naive Th cells obtained from OVA(323-339)-specific DO11.10 TCR-Tg mice did not express preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA.
Neg (not) Transcription (express) of preproenkephalin
20) Confidence 0.43 Published 2000 Journal J. Neuroimmunol. Section Abstract Doc Link 10742550 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.07

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