INT86792

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Context Info
Confidence 0.77
First Reported 2000
Last Reported 2011
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 17
Total Number 20
Disease Relevance 4.24
Pain Relevance 8.58

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

mitochondrion (Kars) translation (Kars) ligase activity (Kars)
cytoplasm (Kars)
Anatomy Link Frequency
spinal cord 4
neurons 3
spinal 2
synapses 2
striatum 1
Kars (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
gABA 174 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 2 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
GABAergic 186 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 252 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 2 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 87 98.84 Very High Very High Very High
Hippocampus 58 98.76 Very High Very High Very High
substantia gelatinosa 798 98.68 Very High Very High Very High
Lasting pain 28 98.64 Very High Very High Very High
projection neuron 2 97.68 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pain 45 98.64 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 98 97.96 Very High Very High Very High
Necrosis 6 96.00 Very High Very High Very High
Fracture Healing 64 95.84 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 3 95.64 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 64 94.80 High High
Death 81 93.12 High High
Parkinson's Disease 18 93.08 High High
Convulsion 54 86.76 High High
Targeted Disruption 68 84.00 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In the present study, we show that the GluR6 subunit of KARs is expressed in both substance P- and enkephalin-containing GABAergic projection neurons of the mouse striatum.
Gene_expression (expressed) of KARs in striatum associated with gabaergic, projection neuron, enkephalin and substance p
1) Confidence 0.77 Published 2000 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 10704492 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.31
Considering the wide expression of functional KARs from the DRG, the spinal cord and supraspinal structures such as the anterior cingulate cortex [52,53], the exact functional sites for KARs are largely unknown.
Gene_expression (expression) of KARs in spinal cord associated with anterior cingulate cortex and spinal cord
2) Confidence 0.60 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1570342 Disease Relevance 0.67 Pain Relevance 0.60
Previous work showed that KARs expression was not particular obvious in the spinal cord, with the methods of in situ hybridization [30] or immunocytochemistry [31].
Gene_expression (expression) of KARs in spinal cord associated with spinal cord
3) Confidence 0.53 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1570342 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.93
Our previous work has shown that the activation of presynaptic KARs regulates GABAergic and glycinergic synaptic transmission in cultured dorsal horn neurons.
Gene_expression (presynaptic) of KARs in neurons associated with gabaergic and dorsal horn neuron
4) Confidence 0.52 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Abstract Doc Link PMC1570342 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.32
Previous studies have shown that endogenous activation of presynaptic GluR5 KARs in interneurons modulate the inhibitory transmission in hippocampus, basolateral amygdala and spinal cord [25,41,44].
Gene_expression (presynaptic) of KARs in amygdala associated with hippocampus, amygdala and spinal cord
5) Confidence 0.52 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1570342 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.86
Therefore, we wanted to know whether tonic activation of presynaptic GluR5 KARs modulates inhibitory synaptic transmission in SG neurons in the spinal cord.
Gene_expression (presynaptic) of KARs in spinal cord associated with substantia gelatinosa and spinal cord
6) Confidence 0.52 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1570342 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.78
The result suggests that GluR5-containing KARs exist in somatodendritic sites in spinal SG.


Gene_expression (containing) of KARs in spinal associated with substantia gelatinosa
7) Confidence 0.52 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1570342 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.28
This indicates that endogenous glutamate tonically modulates the activity of nearby inhibitory synapses via GluR5 containing KARs.


Gene_expression (containing) of KARs in synapses associated with glutamate
8) Confidence 0.52 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1570342 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.66
Generally, postysynaptic KARs mediate a small portion of excitatory synaptic transmission, whereas the presynaptic KARs regulate either glutamatergic or GABAergic transmission [11,13,14].
Gene_expression (presynaptic) of KARs associated with gabaergic
9) Confidence 0.52 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1570342 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.30
In the present study, pharmacological, electrophysiological and genetic methods were used to show that presynaptic GluR5 KARs are involved in the modulation of inhibitory transmission in the SG of spinal slices in vitro.
Gene_expression (presynaptic) of KARs in spinal associated with substantia gelatinosa
10) Confidence 0.52 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Abstract Doc Link PMC1570342 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.45
This indicates that endogenous glutamate tonically modulates the activity of nearby inhibitory synapses via presynaptic GluR5 containing KARs.


Gene_expression (containing) of KARs in synapses associated with glutamate
11) Confidence 0.52 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1570342 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.24
To investigate whether presynaptic GluR5 KARs are activated by endogenous glutamate, we examined the effect of bath application of GluR5 antagonist, LY293558, on sIPSCs in spinal SG neurons.
Spec (whether) Gene_expression (presynaptic) of KARs in neurons associated with substantia gelatinosa, glutamate and antagonist
12) Confidence 0.52 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1570342 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.63
-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release by presynaptic GluR5 KARs has been well reported in the hippocampus and cortex [2,15-22].
Gene_expression (presynaptic) of KARs in cortex associated with gaba and hippocampus
13) Confidence 0.52 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1570342 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.37
Kainate receptors (KARs) are abundantly expressed in the basal ganglia, but their function in synaptic transmission has not been established.
Gene_expression (expressed) of KARs in basal ganglia
14) Confidence 0.52 Published 2000 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 10704492 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.24
KARs are most abundant in CA3 region and the activation of KARs can induce the production of ROS and compromise the function of mitochondria in the region [14, 15].
Gene_expression (abundant) of KARs
15) Confidence 0.34 Published 2011 Journal Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Section Body Doc Link PMC2992819 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0.14
KA binds to KARs expressed on neurons and microglia, leading to (1) rapid Ca2+ influx, (2) activation of Ca2+-dependent enzymes and generation of ROS and RNS, (3) excessive Ca2+, ROS and RNS lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, and (4) nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation.
Gene_expression (expressed) of KARs in neurons associated with parkinson's disease
16) Confidence 0.30 Published 2011 Journal Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Section Body Doc Link PMC2992819 Disease Relevance 1.03 Pain Relevance 0.11
-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release by presynaptic GluR5 KARs has been well reported in the hippocampus and cortex [2,15-22].
Gene_expression (presynaptic) of KARs in hippocampus associated with gaba and hippocampus
17) Confidence 0.18 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1570342 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.37
Previous studies have shown that endogenous activation of presynaptic GluR5 KARs in interneurons modulate the inhibitory transmission in hippocampus, basolateral amygdala and spinal cord [25,41,44].
Gene_expression (presynaptic) of KARs in spinal cord associated with hippocampus, amygdala and spinal cord
18) Confidence 0.18 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1570342 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.86
KA binds to KARs expressed on neurons and microglia, leading to (1) rapid Ca2+ influx, (2) activation of Ca2+-dependent enzymes and generation of ROS and RNS, (3) excessive Ca2+, ROS and RNS lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, and (4) nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation.
Gene_expression (expressed) of KARs in microglia associated with parkinson's disease
19) Confidence 0.10 Published 2011 Journal Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Section Body Doc Link PMC2992819 Disease Relevance 1.03 Pain Relevance 0.11
Given the important role of lysine crosslinks in the biosynthesis of collagen, it is interesting that lysyl-tRNA synthetase was the only tRNA synthetase gene that was overexpressed in our data.
Gene_expression (overexpressed) of lysyl-tRNA synthetase
20) Confidence 0.06 Published 2006 Journal BMC Genomics Section Body Doc Link PMC1578570 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0

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