INT8748

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Context Info
Confidence 0.67
First Reported 1991
Last Reported 2011
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 24
Total Number 24
Disease Relevance 9.74
Pain Relevance 3.46

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Gcg) extracellular region (Gcg) cytoplasm (Gcg)
Anatomy Link Frequency
alpha cell 12
lung 6
skeletal muscles 4
blood 4
nerves 4
Gcg (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
qutenza 24 98.74 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 18 98.34 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 69 95.98 Very High Very High Very High
Clonidine 2 93.80 High High
substance P 21 92.32 High High
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 9 91.52 High High
antagonist 21 89.76 High High
adenocard 2 85.44 High High
tetrodotoxin 4 84.36 Quite High
Angina 2 78.72 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Hypoglycemia 441 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperglycemia 172 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 1426 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 153 96.92 Very High Very High Very High
Atherosclerosis 150 94.12 High High
Congenital Anomalies 60 86.04 High High
Insulin Resistance 240 85.92 High High
Hypoxia 3 85.92 High High
Convulsion 2 84.64 Quite High
Stress 95 82.00 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Stimulation of glucagon release and inhibition of insulin secretion from the islets of Langerhans are important for the blood-glucose-elevating effect of adrenaline.
Positive_regulation (Stimulation) of Localization (release) of glucagon in blood
1) Confidence 0.67 Published 2004 Journal Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 14727006 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Furthermore, capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerve fibers are partially involved in 2-DG-induced glucagon secretion and hyperglycemia, whereas sensory nerves are not involved in 2-DG-induced insulin secretion.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (secretion) of glucagon in sensory nerves associated with hyperglycemia and qutenza
2) Confidence 0.65 Published 1992 Journal J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. Section Abstract Doc Link 1378463 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.79
The results indicate that alpha1- and beta-adrenoceptors on the alpha-cells mediate adrenaline-stimulated glucagon secretion.
Positive_regulation (adrenaline-stimulated) of Localization (secretion) of glucagon
3) Confidence 0.49 Published 2004 Journal Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 14727006 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.22
Neonatal capsaicin-treatment in mice: effects on pancreatic peptidergic nerves and 2-deoxy-D-glucose-induced insulin and glucagon secretion.
Positive_regulation (2-deoxy-D-glucose-induced) of Localization (secretion) of glucagon in nerves associated with qutenza
4) Confidence 0.47 Published 1992 Journal J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. Section Title Doc Link 1378463 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.83
In controls, 2-DG stimulated insulin and glucagon secretion and induced hyperglycemia (P less than 0.01).
Positive_regulation (stimulated) of Localization (secretion) of glucagon associated with hyperglycemia
5) Confidence 0.47 Published 1992 Journal J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. Section Abstract Doc Link 1378463 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.76
Effect of nerve blockade on pulsatile insulin and glucagon secretion in vitro.
Positive_regulation (pulsatile) of Localization (secretion) of glucagon in nerve
6) Confidence 0.33 Published 1991 Journal Pancreas Section Title Doc Link 1780325 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.31
Analysis of Kir6.2 null mice has shown that Kir6.2/SUR1 channels in pancreatic beta-cells and the hypothalamus are essential in glucose-induced insulin secretion and hypoglycemia-induced glucagon secretion, respectively, and that Kir6.2/SUR2 channels are involved in glucose uptake in skeletal muscles.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (secretion) of glucagon in skeletal muscles associated with hypoglycemia
7) Confidence 0.27 Published 2004 Journal Diabetes Section Abstract Doc Link 15561908 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.10
The Kir6.2-containing K(ATP) channels in pancreatic ss-cells and the hypothalamus are essential in the regulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion and hypoglycemia-induced glucagon secretion, respectively, and are involved in glucose uptake in skeletal muscles, thus playing a key role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (secretion) of glucagon in skeletal muscles associated with hypoglycemia
8) Confidence 0.22 Published 2005 Journal J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 15910876 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0.11
GLP-1 receptors have been identified in the pancreas (beta and alpha cells), kidney, heart, stomach, lung, and brain.8,9 GLP-1 enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion, causes glucose-dependent suppression of elevated glucagon secretion, slows gastric emptying, and reduces food intake.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of Localization (secretion) of glucagon in lung
9) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2941781 Disease Relevance 0.55 Pain Relevance 0.04
GLP-1 agonists (exenatide and liraglutide) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (sitagliptin, saxagliptin, vildagliptin, and alogliptin) improve insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells, and decrease the elevated rate of glucagon secretion by alpha cells.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of Localization (secretion) of glucagon in pancreatic beta cells associated with agonist
10) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2941781 Disease Relevance 0.69 Pain Relevance 0.05
Beta cell function is markedly impaired in T2DM, and alpha cell secretion of glucagon is increased.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (secretion) of glucagon in alpha cell associated with diabetes mellitus
11) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2941781 Disease Relevance 1.13 Pain Relevance 0.03
With regard to the beta cell defect, pioglitazone decreases lipotoxicity and exerts direct effects via the peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-gamma to augment insulin secretion, while alogliptin improves islet function by increasing insulin secretion and lowering glucagon secretion in response to elevated plasma glucose levels.
Positive_regulation (response) of Localization (secretion) of glucagon in plasma
12) Confidence 0.15 Published 2010 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2941781 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.03
The main physiologic role of glucagon is to oppose the action of insulin on HGP in order to protect against hypoglycemia and restore normoglycemia.111 GLP-1 inhibits the inappropriately high glucagon secretion after a meal, both directly through the GLP-1 receptor on the alpha cell and indirectly by stimulating insulin secretion, although the absolute contribution of each component is still debated.112 This glucose-dependent inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on glucagon secretion reduces HGP and decreases postprandial plasma glucose levels.113

Correction of accelerated gastric emptying

Positive_regulation (on) of Localization (secretion) of glucagon in alpha cell associated with hypoglycemia
13) Confidence 0.15 Published 2010 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2941781 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0
The main physiologic role of glucagon is to oppose the action of insulin on HGP in order to protect against hypoglycemia and restore normoglycemia.111 GLP-1 inhibits the inappropriately high glucagon secretion after a meal, both directly through the GLP-1 receptor on the alpha cell and indirectly by stimulating insulin secretion, although the absolute contribution of each component is still debated.112 This glucose-dependent inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on glucagon secretion reduces HGP and decreases postprandial plasma glucose levels.113

Correction of accelerated gastric emptying

Positive_regulation (on) of Localization (secretion) of glucagon in alpha cell associated with hypoglycemia
14) Confidence 0.15 Published 2010 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2941781 Disease Relevance 0.42 Pain Relevance 0
The glucoregulatory mechanisms by which GLP-1 and exenatide/liraglutide act are similar, but GLP-1 suppresses gastric acid secretion, whereas exenatide and liraglutide do not.10 DPP-4 inhibitors augment insulin secretion and inhibit glucagon release, but do not slow gastric emptying and are weight neutral.11
Positive_regulation (but) of Localization (release) of glucagon
15) Confidence 0.15 Published 2010 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2941781 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.03
The main physiologic role of glucagon is to oppose the action of insulin on HGP in order to protect against hypoglycemia and restore normoglycemia.111 GLP-1 inhibits the inappropriately high glucagon secretion after a meal, both directly through the GLP-1 receptor on the alpha cell and indirectly by stimulating insulin secretion, although the absolute contribution of each component is still debated.112 This glucose-dependent inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on glucagon secretion reduces HGP and decreases postprandial plasma glucose levels.113

Correction of accelerated gastric emptying

Positive_regulation (through) of Localization (secretion) of glucagon in alpha cell associated with hypoglycemia
16) Confidence 0.15 Published 2010 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2941781 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0
The main physiologic role of glucagon is to oppose the action of insulin on HGP in order to protect against hypoglycemia and restore normoglycemia.111 GLP-1 inhibits the inappropriately high glucagon secretion after a meal, both directly through the GLP-1 receptor on the alpha cell and indirectly by stimulating insulin secretion, although the absolute contribution of each component is still debated.112 This glucose-dependent inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on glucagon secretion reduces HGP and decreases postprandial plasma glucose levels.113

Correction of accelerated gastric emptying

Positive_regulation (through) of Localization (secretion) of glucagon in alpha cell associated with hypoglycemia
17) Confidence 0.15 Published 2010 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2941781 Disease Relevance 0.46 Pain Relevance 0
The main physiologic role of glucagon is to oppose the action of insulin on HGP in order to protect against hypoglycemia and restore normoglycemia.111 GLP-1 inhibits the inappropriately high glucagon secretion after a meal, both directly through the GLP-1 receptor on the alpha cell and indirectly by stimulating insulin secretion, although the absolute contribution of each component is still debated.112 This glucose-dependent inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on glucagon secretion reduces HGP and decreases postprandial plasma glucose levels.113

Correction of accelerated gastric emptying

Positive_regulation (high) of Localization (secretion) of glucagon in alpha cell associated with hypoglycemia
18) Confidence 0.15 Published 2010 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2941781 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0
Glucagon-like peptide-1 deficiency/resistance contributes to islet cell dysfunction by impairing insulin secretion and increasing glucagon secretion.
Positive_regulation (increasing) of Localization (secretion) of glucagon
19) Confidence 0.14 Published 2010 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2941781 Disease Relevance 0.69 Pain Relevance 0
While Avp acts on the Avpr1b to decrease blood sugar levels through insulin release, it can also act in opposition to this by stimulating glucagon release (Yibchok-anun and Hsu 1998) and promoting hepatic glycogenolysis (Kirk et al. 1979).
Positive_regulation (stimulating) of Localization (release) of glucagon in blood
20) Confidence 0.11 Published 2011 Journal Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands) Section Body Doc Link PMC3016603 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0

General Comments

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