INT89248

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 2000
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 14
Total Number 17
Disease Relevance 6.99
Pain Relevance 12.30

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (Galr1) plasma membrane (Galr1) signal transducer activity (Galr1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
locus coeruleus 2
neurons 1
peripheral nervous systems 1
hippocampus 1
Galr1 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Locus ceruleus 58 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 40 99.30 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropathic pain 58 98.78 Very High Very High Very High
withdrawal 50 98.26 Very High Very High Very High
opiate 22 98.04 Very High Very High Very High
Neuronal excitability 20 98.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 25 97.84 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 66 97.72 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 24 97.60 Very High Very High Very High
Sciatic nerve 17 97.24 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Convulsion 256 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Death 160 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 55 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Sprains And Strains 48 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 48 99.30 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropathic Pain 85 98.78 Very High Very High Very High
Nervous System Injury 34 97.52 Very High Very High Very High
Hypersensitivity 4 96.12 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 53 92.16 High High
Drug Dependence 6 90.68 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The duration of such pain-like behaviours was significantly increased in Galr1(-/-).
Positive_regulation (increased) of Galr1 associated with pain
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 12605908 Disease Relevance 0.88 Pain Relevance 0.72
Upregulation of galanin binding sites and GalR1 mRNA levels in the mouse locus coeruleus following chronic morphine treatments and precipitated morphine withdrawal.
Positive_regulation (Upregulation) of GalR1 in locus coeruleus associated with locus ceruleus, withdrawal and morphine
2) Confidence 0.69 Published 2000 Journal Neuropsychopharmacology Section Title Doc Link 10882839 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 1.05
It is, therefore, possible that the increase in GalR1 could be an adaptive mechanism that leads to regulation of cAMP levels and possibly firing rate of LC neurons.
Positive_regulation (increase) of GalR1 in neurons associated with locus ceruleus
3) Confidence 0.69 Published 2000 Journal Neuropsychopharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 10882839 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.99
We have shown that opiate withdrawal, which is known to increase levels of cAMP in the locus coeruleus (LC), results in an increase in the number of galanin binding sites and the level of GalR1 mRNA in the LC.
Positive_regulation (increase) of GalR1 in locus coeruleus associated with locus ceruleus, opiate and withdrawal
4) Confidence 0.69 Published 2001 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 11145992 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.66
Gel shift and super-shift experiments demonstrate that the transcription factor CREB can bind to both sites and is likely to be responsible for the cAMP-mediated increase in GalR1 promoter activity.
Positive_regulation (increase) of GalR1
5) Confidence 0.69 Published 2001 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 11145992 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.55
The mechanical sensitivity was not different between Galr1(-/-) and wild type (Galr1(+/+)) mice, whereas the cold response was moderately enhanced in Galr1(-/-) mice.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Galr1
6) Confidence 0.50 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 12605908 Disease Relevance 0.91 Pain Relevance 0.69
Seven days later, Nissl and NeuN immune- staining demonstrated that hippocampal cell death was significantly increased in GalR1 knockout strains and in animals injected with the GalR1 antagonist.
Positive_regulation (increased) of GalR1 associated with targeted disruption, antagonist, sprains and strains and death
7) Confidence 0.50 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC3001489 Disease Relevance 1.34 Pain Relevance 0.15
Several lines of evidence indicate that galanin, as well as activation of the GalR1 receptor, is a potent and effective modulator of neuronal excitability in the hippocampus.


Positive_regulation (activation) of GalR1 in hippocampus associated with neuronal excitability and hippocampus
8) Confidence 0.50 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC3001489 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.14
Galanin is a neuropeptide with a wide distribution in the central and peripheral nervous systems and whose physiological effects are mediated through three G protein-coupled receptor subtypes, GalR1, GalR2, and GalR3.
Positive_regulation (mediated) of GalR1 in peripheral nervous systems associated with neuropeptide
9) Confidence 0.47 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC3001489 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.14
Moreover, the increase in galanin binding sites seems to be caused by increased transcription or stabilization of the galanin receptor 1 (GalR1) gene, because there is a dramatic increase in mRNA levels following withdrawal in the LC.
Positive_regulation (increased) of GalR1 associated with locus ceruleus and withdrawal
10) Confidence 0.47 Published 2000 Journal Neuropsychopharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 10882839 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 1.05
Moreover, the increase in galanin binding sites seems to be caused by increased transcription or stabilization of the galanin receptor 1 (GalR1) gene, because there is a dramatic increase in mRNA levels following withdrawal in the LC.
Positive_regulation (stabilization) of GalR1 associated with locus ceruleus and withdrawal
11) Confidence 0.47 Published 2000 Journal Neuropsychopharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 10882839 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 1.04
Moreover, the increase in galanin binding sites seems to be caused by increased transcription or stabilization of the galanin receptor 1 (GalR1) gene, because there is a dramatic increase in mRNA levels following withdrawal in the LC.
Positive_regulation (increased) of galanin receptor 1 associated with locus ceruleus and withdrawal
12) Confidence 0.47 Published 2000 Journal Neuropsychopharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 10882839 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 1.05
Moreover, the increase in galanin binding sites seems to be caused by increased transcription or stabilization of the galanin receptor 1 (GalR1) gene, because there is a dramatic increase in mRNA levels following withdrawal in the LC.
Positive_regulation (stabilization) of galanin receptor 1 associated with locus ceruleus and withdrawal
13) Confidence 0.47 Published 2000 Journal Neuropsychopharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 10882839 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 1.04
The region between - 1050 and - 700 base pairs upstream of exon one is necessary both for basal activity of the GalR1 promoter and for forskolin-mediated increases in transcription.
Positive_regulation (necessary) of GalR1
14) Confidence 0.47 Published 2001 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 11145992 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.63
The region between - 1050 and - 700 base pairs upstream of exon one is necessary both for basal activity of the GalR1 promoter and for forskolin-mediated increases in transcription.
Positive_regulation (increases) of GalR1
15) Confidence 0.47 Published 2001 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 11145992 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.63
Thus, we were especially interested in determining if the increase in seizure-induced excitotoxic cell death in our GalR1?
Positive_regulation (increase) of GalR1 associated with convulsion and death
16) Confidence 0.41 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC3001489 Disease Relevance 1.06 Pain Relevance 0.11
Similarly, neuropathic pain is decreased in transgenic mice overexpressing galanin, and augmented in galanin receptor 1-null mice [33,34].
Positive_regulation (augmented) of galanin receptor 1-null associated with targeted disruption and neuropathic pain
17) Confidence 0.07 Published 2008 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2365930 Disease Relevance 1.50 Pain Relevance 1.65

General Comments

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