INT9084

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1992
Last Reported 2010
Negated 3
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 74
Total Number 76
Disease Relevance 69.77
Pain Relevance 11.85

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Nppb) extracellular region (Nppb) nucleus (Nppb)
cytoplasm (Nppb)
Anatomy Link Frequency
ventricle 7
plasma 7
heart 7
chest 3
brain 2
Nppb (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pain 61 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
dorsal root ganglion 6 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 2 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
rheumatoid arthritis 373 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
cva 122 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 4 99.32 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 9 99.30 Very High Very High Very High
ischemia 136 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
depression 11 99.02 Very High Very High Very High
Angina 132 98.06 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Natriuresis 706 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neck Pain 40 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 6 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Rheumatoid Arthritis 373 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Coronary Heart Disease 172 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Pulmonary Embolism 92 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 398 99.78 Very High Very High Very High
Acute Coronary Syndrome 177 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Myocardial Infarction 1468 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Pulmonary Hypertension 223 99.52 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Fijalkowska and colleagues demonstrated that NT-proBNP concentrations were not only increased in patients suffering from PAH, but also predicted 3-year death.
Positive_regulation (increased) of NT-proBNP associated with pulmonary hypertension and death
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 2006 Journal Biomark Insights Section Body Doc Link PMC2716780 Disease Relevance 1.09 Pain Relevance 0.15
Thus, BNP negatively regulates nociceptive transmission through presynaptic receptor NPR-A, and activation of the BNP/NPR-A/PKG/BKCa channel pathway in nociceptive afferent neurons could be a potential strategy for inflammatory pain therapy.
Positive_regulation (activation) of BNP in afferent neurons associated with nociception and ipn
2) Confidence 0.68 Published 2010 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 20702721 Disease Relevance 0.93 Pain Relevance 0.67
Using microarray and immunoblot analyses, we found that BNP and NPR-A were expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rats and upregulated after intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA).
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of BNP in dorsal root ganglion associated with ganglion cysts and dorsal root ganglion
3) Confidence 0.68 Published 2010 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 20702721 Disease Relevance 0.91 Pain Relevance 0.60
However, it is still unknown whether such elevation of the ANP and BNP may offer a therapeutic benefit to the progression of chronic heart failure (CHF).
Positive_regulation (elevation) of BNP in heart associated with myocardial infarction
4) Confidence 0.63 Published 2001 Journal Cardiovasc. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 11476752 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0
These changes were accompanied by marked increases in the plasma ANP, BNP and endothelin-1 (ET-1).
Positive_regulation (increases) of BNP in plasma
5) Confidence 0.63 Published 2001 Journal Cardiovasc. Res. Section Body Doc Link 11476752 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
We hypothesized that the change in IOP under hypobaric hypoxic conditions, which has been shown previously, may be compensated and returned to normal values with the increasing BNP under these conditions.
Positive_regulation (increasing) of BNP associated with hypoxia and ocular hypertension
6) Confidence 0.61 Published 2010 Journal Indian Journal of Ophthalmology Section Body Doc Link PMC2886248 Disease Relevance 1.29 Pain Relevance 0
Plasma levels of BNP have been found to increase during hypoxia.[20] In addition to extended exposure to hypobaric hypoxia itself (10-91 days), endurance training in hypobaric hypoxic conditions leads to a marked early increase in ventricular and atrial BNP mRNA levels.[21] As for the physiologic effects that can be produced by elevated plasma BNP levels, Klinger et al., found that in rats, BNP infusion attenuated the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.[22] The authors suggested that this finding supports the hypothesis that endogenous BNP plays a role in modulating the pulmonary hypertensive responses seen in chronic hypoxia.
Positive_regulation (increase) of BNP in plasma associated with pulmonary hypertension and hypoxia
7) Confidence 0.61 Published 2010 Journal Indian Journal of Ophthalmology Section Body Doc Link PMC2886248 Disease Relevance 1.25 Pain Relevance 0
As an example, several studies have shown that NT-proBNP indeed correlates not only with onset and severity of symptoms but also with prognosis in aortic stenosis.56–59 Gerber et al. studied 74 patients with isolated aortic stenosis, and found that, after adjustment for age, sex, serum creatinine, aortic valve area and LVEF, that NT-proBNP concentrations were 1.74 times higher (1.12–2.69 95% CI) for symptomatic than asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis.57 This is supported by the work of Weber and colleagues, who have also shown in their studies that NT-proBNP elevations were the earliest predictor of symptom onset, which is usually the moment when surgery is considered.56,60 Also in mitral valvular disease, several studies have indicated that the severity of valvular disease correlates with NT-proBNP concentrations, not only in mitral regurgitation,61–63 but also in mitral stenosis.63–65
Positive_regulation (elevations) of NT-proBNP in aortic valve associated with mitral valve stenosis, mitral valve insufficiency, cv unclassified under development and disease
8) Confidence 0.61 Published 2006 Journal Biomark Insights Section Body Doc Link PMC2716780 Disease Relevance 1.06 Pain Relevance 0
Most of these studies have included patients with a history of significant established ischaemic heart disease, increasing the likelihood of ischaemic ventricular damage contributing to BNP elevation.
Positive_regulation (elevation) of BNP in heart associated with coronary artery disease
9) Confidence 0.60 Published 2010 Journal Ulster Med J Section Body Doc Link PMC2993131 Disease Relevance 1.65 Pain Relevance 0.49
We found that RA patients with active disease have high levels of BNP as compared both with inactive RA and healthy control subjects, despite no history or ischaemic heart disease or cardiac failure.



Positive_regulation (levels) of BNP in heart associated with coronary artery disease, rheumatoid arthritis, disease and heart failure
10) Confidence 0.60 Published 2010 Journal Ulster Med J Section Body Doc Link PMC2993131 Disease Relevance 1.45 Pain Relevance 0.39
An increase of BNP levels by 1 SD was associated with a 77% increased risk of developing heart failure and a 28% increased risk of a first cardiovascular event [11].
Positive_regulation (increase) of BNP in heart associated with myocardial infarction
11) Confidence 0.60 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2483462 Disease Relevance 1.24 Pain Relevance 0.21
NT-proBNP is metabolized in the renal proximal tubule, and reduced renal function partially accounts for the age-related increase in NT-proBNP levels in the general population [14,35].
Positive_regulation (increase) of NT-proBNP in renal proximal tubule
12) Confidence 0.60 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2483462 Disease Relevance 0.86 Pain Relevance 0.21
Although increased gene expression does not necessarily convey a higher concentration of the protein, the data suggest that pressure overload is accompanied by upregulation of not only ANP and BNP but also their receptors NPR-A and NPR-C in the left ventricle.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of BNP in ventricle
13) Confidence 0.53 Published 2006 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 16272201 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.17
Further studies are needed to identify therapies that may reduce the risk associated with increased BNP or hsCRP.
Positive_regulation (increased) of BNP
14) Confidence 0.53 Published 2008 Journal BMC Cardiovasc Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC2628862 Disease Relevance 0.84 Pain Relevance 0
Patients were aged 60 years or older with clinical signs of heart failure NYHA > or =II, elevated NT-BNP, and had been hospitalised due to heart failure within the last year.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of NT-BNP in heart
15) Confidence 0.51 Published 2009 Journal Swiss Med Wkly Section Body Doc Link 19705308 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
Since in coronary ischemia (including both stable and unstable angina as well as acute myocardial infarction [MI]), myocardial wall stress increases, and variable reductions in LVEF may also occur, the possible role of NT-proBNP testing for evaluation of ischemic heart disease has also been studied.102,103 Seminal studies found indeed that NT-proBNP was a potential useful diagnostic and prognostic marker in MI.104,105 Jernberg and colleagues also found in 775 patients admitted for acute chest pain without ST elevations that the patients in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartile had a relative risk of subsequent death of 4.2, 10.7 and 26.6 when compared to the lowest quartile.106 Several studies have confirmed that NT-proBNP is an independent predictor of mortality in patients suffering from an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and moreover, even a stronger predictor for mortality than troponin testing in this setting, regardless of any signs of HF.105,107–110
Neg (independent) Positive_regulation (independent) of NT-proBNP in chest associated with stress, acute coronary syndrome, angina, coronary artery disease, ischemia, cva, myocardial infarction and death
16) Confidence 0.50 Published 2006 Journal Biomark Insights Section Body Doc Link PMC2716780 Disease Relevance 1.25 Pain Relevance 0.18
While most of these studies predict a promising role for NT-proBNP in valvular heart disease management, further research is warranted in order to establish the role of NT-proBNP in a decision algorithm for valvular heart disease.


Positive_regulation (role) of NT-proBNP in heart associated with coronary heart disease
17) Confidence 0.50 Published 2006 Journal Biomark Insights Section Body Doc Link PMC2716780 Disease Relevance 1.48 Pain Relevance 0
The classical predictors of prognosis in HF that are used in clinical practice typically include symptom severity, maximal oxygen consumption and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), together with classical risk markers such as diabetes, older age and male gender.44–47 NT-proBNP has shown not only to be a powerful predictor of outcome in HF both on short term48 and one year time period,49 it is even a better predictor than maximal oxygen consumption, LVEF, or any other risk markers.4,50–52 Moreover, patients in whom NT-proBNP concentration decreases in reaction to therapy have a better prognosis;53 in an interesting pilot study including 69 patients, NT-proBNP was a superior guide for therapy than the combination of classical clinical symptoms and signs.54 Interestingly, the ICON study has shown that in 1256 patients with acute dyspnea, NT-proBNP was the best predictor of prognosis, regardless whether the patient was diagnosed with HF or not (Fig. 4) implying the importance of NT-proBNP for stratifying risk in dyspnea; the authors argue that in a dyspneic patient, there is no such thing as a “false positive” NT-proBNP, and elevations in a patient without acute HF should not be ignored.


Positive_regulation (elevations) of NT-proBNP in superior associated with diabetes mellitus, dyspnea and myocardial infarction
18) Confidence 0.50 Published 2006 Journal Biomark Insights Section Body Doc Link PMC2716780 Disease Relevance 1.06 Pain Relevance 0
In addition to acute right ventricular overload, NT-proBNP concentrations are also elevated in chronic PAH.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of NT-proBNP associated with pulmonary hypertension
19) Confidence 0.47 Published 2006 Journal Biomark Insights Section Body Doc Link PMC2716780 Disease Relevance 1.06 Pain Relevance 0.16
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that serum BNP levels are elevated in RA patients without any previous history of coronary artery disease or cardiac impairment, and that patients with clinically active disease as measured by the Disease Activity Score (DAS28) had higher serum BNP levels than patients with well-controlled disease.


Positive_regulation (elevated) of serum BNP in coronary artery associated with coronary artery disease, rheumatoid arthritis and disease
20) Confidence 0.46 Published 2010 Journal Ulster Med J Section Body Doc Link PMC2993131 Disease Relevance 1.98 Pain Relevance 0.49

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