INT9126

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Context Info
Confidence 0.58
First Reported 1989
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 20
Total Number 20
Disease Relevance 8.58
Pain Relevance 3.28

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (Xdh) oxidoreductase activity (Xdh) extracellular region (Xdh)
peroxisome (Xdh) cytoplasm (Xdh)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neuronal 1
blood 1
liver 1
nephron 1
nerve 1
Xdh (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pain 6 99.62 Very High Very High Very High
ischemia 133 98.72 Very High Very High Very High
diabetic neuropathy 10 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 22 97.40 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 8 96.20 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 8 95.16 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 5 94.76 High High
Paracetamol 5 89.52 High High
Tetrahydrobiopterin 4 82.40 Quite High
Sciatic nerve 3 79.24 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Acute Renal Failure 48 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 43 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Frostbite 1 99.32 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 118 99.14 Very High Very High Very High
Gallstones 2 98.84 Very High Very High Very High
Cv Unclassified Under Development 124 98.72 Very High Very High Very High
Renal Failure 13 98.24 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetic Neuropathy 11 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
Cv General 4 Under Development 6 96.96 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 97 93.48 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
After 6 weeks of streptozotocin-diabetes, groups of rats were given 2 weeks of high-dose allopurinol treatment (50 and 250 mg/kg) to gauge the effect of maximal blockade of xanthine oxidase.
Negative_regulation (blockade) of xanthine oxidase associated with diabetes mellitus
1) Confidence 0.58 Published 2007 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 17291486 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 0.10
Inhibition of xanthine oxidase could be a potential therapeutic approach to diabetic neuropathy and vasculopathy.
Negative_regulation (Inhibition) of xanthine oxidase associated with diabetic neuropathy
2) Confidence 0.58 Published 2007 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 17291486 Disease Relevance 0.85 Pain Relevance 0.31
Allopurinol, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, has been found to markedly suppress the uric acid production in the same experimental settings.
Negative_regulation (inhibitor) of xanthine oxidoreductase
3) Confidence 0.43 Published 1989 Journal No To Shinkei Section Abstract Doc Link 2803824 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.11
Treatment with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol, improves nerve and vascular function in diabetic rats.
Negative_regulation (inhibitor) of xanthine oxidase in nerve associated with pain and diabetes mellitus
4) Confidence 0.43 Published 2007 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Title Doc Link 17291486 Disease Relevance 0.64 Pain Relevance 0.34
Allopurinol (50 mg kg-1 by gavage), an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase which catalyses oxidation of xanthine to UA, decreased basal UA and AA concentrations and the morphine-induced increase in DA metabolites and AA oxidation.
Negative_regulation (inhibitor) of xanthine oxidase associated with dopamine and morphine
5) Confidence 0.22 Published 1997 Journal Pharmacol. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9356212 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.87
However, l-Arg administration has been shown to ameliorate serum and pulmonary cytokine response after gut I/R (Fu et al 2005) and to exert protective effects on reperfusion after pancreaticoduodenal transplantation in rats (Yuan et al 2004). l-NAME is a potent competitive NOS inhibitor that restricts NO formation and allopurinol is a competitive inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, an enzyme that is strongly related to I/R injury.
Negative_regulation (inhibitor) of xanthine oxidase in gut associated with injury and cytokine
6) Confidence 0.21 Published 2008 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2496980 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.12
To study the effect of oral administration of a nitric oxide (NO) donor l-arginine (l-Arg), a NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, allopurinol (Allo), on serum NO concentration and catalase activity after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats.


Negative_regulation (inhibitor) of xanthine oxidase associated with cv general 4 under development and ischemia
7) Confidence 0.21 Published 2008 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2496980 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.09
Both BQ-123 and L-NAME treatments prevented high xanthine oxidase activity.
Negative_regulation (prevented) of xanthine oxidase
8) Confidence 0.18 Published 2006 Journal Toxicology Section Abstract Doc Link 17046139 Disease Relevance 0.67 Pain Relevance 0.40
Among various parts of the herb (biennial flower, stem-leaf, root-rhizome, fiber root and sideslip), the water extract of the biennial flower showed the strongest effects in (i) inhibiting the enzymatic activity of xanthine oxidase and (ii) protecting neuronal PC12 cells against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity.
Negative_regulation (inhibiting) of xanthine oxidase in neuronal
9) Confidence 0.17 Published 2010 Journal Chin Med Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2978211 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
Various parts of Panax notoginseng, including the biennial flower, stem-leaf, root-rhizome, fiber root and sideslip, were used to prepare extracts and analyzed for their anti-oxidation effects, namely suppressing xanthine oxidase activity, H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and H2O2-induced ROS formation.


Negative_regulation (suppressing) of xanthine oxidase in leaf
10) Confidence 0.17 Published 2010 Journal Chin Med Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2978211 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0
It was found that dalargin inhibited the activity of xanthine oxidase by 32-37% in different time periods after the injection.
Negative_regulation (inhibited) of xanthine oxidase
11) Confidence 0.16 Published 1992 Journal Biull Eksp Biol Med Section Abstract Doc Link 1391860 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.16
In addition, Allopurinol inhibition of xanthine oxidase may have an impact on lesions of ischemia-reperfusion, a potential occurrence in CABG surgery, and a condition in which xanthine oxidase has clearly been implicated.27 The potential effect of decreasing urate levels of allopurinol could have the therapeutic effect.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of xanthine oxidase associated with ischemia
12) Confidence 0.15 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2697583 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.08
It has been shown that the portosystemic bypass in the rat reduces the oxidant scavenging system of the liver with a significant reduction of superoxide dismutase and xanthine-dehydrogenase [4].
Negative_regulation (reduction) of xanthine-dehydrogenase in liver
13) Confidence 0.13 Published 2008 Journal Comp Hepatol Section Body Doc Link PMC2262055 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.07
The isolate exhibited about 80% radical scavenging activity, chelating activity of approximately 64% on Fe2+ ions and an inhibition of approximately 10% of xanthine oxidase.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of xanthine oxidase
14) Confidence 0.13 Published 2006 Journal Phytother Res Section Abstract Doc Link 16807884 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.24
Allopurinol was selected as the choice of xanthine oxidase inhibitor because of the effects of this chemical on the ischemic process.
Negative_regulation (inhibitor) of xanthine oxidase
15) Confidence 0.11 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2697583 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.07
Although no prior studies have evaluated whether allopurinol might prevent ARF in humans, the xanthine oxidase inhibitor oxypurinol did not prevent decreased renal function in rats, which may be because of the effect of oxypurinol to prevent the proliferation of nephron tubular cells.28 Similarly, in our study, the lack of effect of allopurinol on renal function may be related to drug antiproliferative effects on tubular cells.28
Negative_regulation (inhibitor) of xanthine oxidase in nephron associated with acute renal failure
16) Confidence 0.11 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2697583 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0.10
Given that superoxide may be produced by sources other than mitochondrion, future studies using other inhibitors (eg, inhibitors of NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase) may unveil the effectiveness of reducing superoxide on lowering blood pressure in this model.


Negative_regulation (inhibitors) of xanthine oxidase in blood
17) Confidence 0.08 Published 2004 Journal Acta Pharmacol. Sin. Section Body Doc Link 15569407 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Guzik et al. investigated •O2- levels in vascular specimens from diabetic patients and probed sources of •O2- using inhibitors of NOS, NAD(P)H oxidase, xanthine oxidase and mitochondrial electron transport chain.
Negative_regulation (inhibitors) of xanthine oxidase associated with diabetes mellitus
18) Confidence 0.02 Published 2005 Journal Cardiovasc Diabetol Section Body Doc Link PMC1131912 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0.04
There have been attempts to eliminate free radicals through inhibition of xanthine oxidase with allopurinol (7, 8).
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of xanthine oxidase
19) Confidence 0.02 Published 2004 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2816844 Disease Relevance 0.78 Pain Relevance 0.08
In their study, the authors concluded that the effect of garlic extract appeared to occur through inhibition of the xanthine oxidase-mediated I-R injury cascade.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of xanthine oxidase associated with injury
20) Confidence 0.02 Published 2010 Journal Korean Journal of Urology Section Body Doc Link PMC2991579 Disease Relevance 0.93 Pain Relevance 0.09

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