INT93485

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Context Info
Confidence 0.59
First Reported 2000
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 27
Total Number 28
Disease Relevance 10.65
Pain Relevance 20.90

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

plasma membrane (Slc1a2)
Anatomy Link Frequency
spinal 3
retina 2
neuronal 2
nerve 2
astrocytes 2
Slc1a2 (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Glutamate 684 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
nMDA receptor 86 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 75 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
tolerance 34 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
allodynia 16 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal nerve ligature 4 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Antinociceptive 28 99.70 Very High Very High Very High
spinal dorsal horn 92 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 138 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
dexamethasone 10 99.46 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Neuropathic Pain 65 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Thyroid Disease 2 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Paralysis 3 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Nervous System Injury 72 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperalgesia 31 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 3 99.38 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 10 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
Convulsion 11 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
Glaucoma 119 98.40 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 73 98.04 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
These data suggest that inhibition of GLT-1 activity or expression reduces excitatory synaptic efficacy and thereby nociception.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of GLT-1 associated with nociception
1) Confidence 0.59 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 12535941 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.34
Inhibition of GLT-1 by the transportable inhibitor trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid resulted in a significant reduction of nociceptive behavior in the rat formalin assay.
Negative_regulation (Inhibition) of GLT-1 associated with nociception
2) Confidence 0.59 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 12535941 Disease Relevance 0.58 Pain Relevance 0.35
Nerve injury was found to result in a decrease in the total amount of GLT-1 and GLAST at 7 and 14 days after PSNL.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of GLT-1 in Nerve associated with nervous system injury
3) Confidence 0.55 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2676254 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.33
The results from the above suggest that the decrease in GLT-1 and GLAST, which was induced by PNSL, mainly occurred in astrocytes on the injured side.


Negative_regulation (decrease) of GLT-1 in astrocytes
4) Confidence 0.55 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2676254 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.08
The loss of glial glutamate transporter GLAST or GLT-1 produced elevated extracellular glutamate levels, neurodegeneration characteristic of excitotoxicity, and a progressive paralysis [37].
Negative_regulation (loss) of GLT-1 associated with glutamate and paralysis
5) Confidence 0.51 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2713213 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.98
The results showed that amitriptyline alone did not produce an antinociceptive effect, while morphine alone induced antinociceptive tolerance and down-regulation of spinal glutamate transporters (GLAST, GLT-1, and EAAC1) in the rat spinal cord dorsal horn.
Negative_regulation (down-regulation) of GLT-1 in spinal cord dorsal horn associated with glutamate, dorsal horn, tolerance, antinociceptive, endep, spinal cord and morphine
6) Confidence 0.48 Published 2006 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 16697108 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.71
Moreover, the increase in glutamate uptake was reproduced in cultured neurons during morphine withdrawal, and the increase of uptake in neurons could be blocked by dihydrokainate, a specific inhibitor of GLT1.
Negative_regulation (inhibitor) of GLT1 in neurons associated with glutamate, withdrawal and morphine
7) Confidence 0.44 Published 2003 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 12805317 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.17
These results indicate that during transient focal ischemia the increase in extracellular EAAs originates from both the neuronal pool, via conventional exocytotic release, and glial sources via the reversal of the GLT-1 transporter.
Negative_regulation (reversal) of GLT-1 transporter in neuronal associated with ischemia
8) Confidence 0.42 Published 2000 Journal Brain Res. Bull. Section Abstract Doc Link 11179841 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0.47
In the animals infused with Ad-EGFP, total amount of GLT-1 protein was not changed, while the GLT-1 level in the membrane fraction decreased at 7 days following pSNL (14 days after intraspinal infusion).
Negative_regulation (decreased) of GLT-1
9) Confidence 0.42 Published 2008 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2628654 Disease Relevance 0.48 Pain Relevance 0.58
Intraperitoneal preventive and therapeutic administration of Cef effectively prevented or reversed, respectively, the development of thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, and GLT-1 down-regulation in the spinal dorsal horn.
Negative_regulation (down-regulation) of GLT-1 in dorsal horn associated with allodynia, spinal dorsal horn and thermal hyperalgesia
10) Confidence 0.41 Published 2010 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 20022427 Disease Relevance 1.20 Pain Relevance 1.10
Decreases in GLT-1 and GLAST transporters and an ensuing accumulation of glutamate in the synaptic cleft is consistent with neurophysiological studies of spinal neurons following nerve injury [24] wherein an excess of afterdischarges was noted as a cardinal feature.
Negative_regulation (Decreases) of GLT-1 in nerve associated with glutamate and nervous system injury
11) Confidence 0.40 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2676254 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0.50
For example, the induction of allodynia following intrathecal injection of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, NMDA or AMPA was diminished by spinal application of TBOA [47]; and inhibition of GLT-1 activity or expression reduced formalin-induced nociceptive behavior [48].
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of GLT-1 in spinal associated with nociception, allodynia and intrathecal
12) Confidence 0.38 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2713213 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 1.02
Mice lacking GLT-1 show lethal spontaneous seizures and increased susceptibility to acute cortical injury due to increased level of residual glutamate in the brain [38].
Negative_regulation (lacking) of GLT-1 in brain associated with glutamate, convulsion and injury
13) Confidence 0.38 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2713213 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.89
Here we show that the downregulation of spinal GTs (EAAC1 and GLT-1) induced by a 6-day intrathecal morphine (10 microg, twice daily) treatment regimen was prevented by co-administration of morphine with 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (ddA, 1 microg, a broad adenylyl cyclase inhibitor) or H89 (10 microg, a selective protein kinase A inhibitor).
Negative_regulation (downregulation) of GLT-1 in spinal associated with morphine and intrathecal
14) Confidence 0.35 Published 2005 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 15694265 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.74
Long-term morphine infusion induced antinociceptive tolerance and down-regulation of glutamate transporters (GTs), GLAST, GLT-1, and EAAC1, expression in the rat spinal cord dorsal horn.
Negative_regulation (down-regulation) of GLT-1 in spinal cord dorsal horn associated with glutamate, dorsal horn, tolerance, antinociceptive, spinal cord and morphine
15) Confidence 0.28 Published 2007 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 17346885 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.61
In morphine-tolerant rats, acute treatment with PKA inhibitor H89 and PKC inhibitor Gö6805 attenuated morphine tolerance and the morphine-induced CSF glutamate and aspartate elevation, and induced trafficking of GLAST and GLT-1 from cytosol onto the cell surface.
Negative_regulation (trafficking) of GLT-1 associated with glutamate, tolerance and morphine
16) Confidence 0.28 Published 2007 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 17346885 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 2.01
DEX co-infusion prevented the downregulation of glial glutamate transporters (GLAST (Glu-Asp transporter) and GLT-1 (Glu transporter-1)), but not the neuronal GT EAAC1 (excitatory amino acid carrier).
Negative_regulation (downregulation) of GLT-1 in neuronal associated with glutamate, dexamethasone and excitatory amino acid
17) Confidence 0.26 Published 2005 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 15893883 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 2.01
In support of this, a significant reduction of the glutamate transporters GLAST (EAAT1) and GLT-1 (EAAT2) has been observed in experimental rat glaucoma retina (Martin et al., 2002).
Negative_regulation (reduction) of GLT-1 in retina associated with glutamate and glaucoma
18) Confidence 0.25 Published 2008 Journal Progress in Brain Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2603274 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0.42
In support of this, a significant reduction of the glutamate transporters GLAST (EAAT1) and GLT-1 (EAAT2) has been observed in experimental rat glaucoma retina (Martin et al., 2002).
Negative_regulation (reduction) of EAAT2 in retina associated with glutamate and glaucoma
19) Confidence 0.25 Published 2008 Journal Progress in Brain Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2603274 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0.44
Interestingly, chronic haloperidol treatment down regulate EAAT2 in the cingulate- and frontal cortex in rats [45], indicating that decreased EAAT2 levels rather may reflect a beneficial condition following the antipsychotic treatment of schizophrenia.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of EAAT2 in frontal cortex associated with urological neuroanatomy and schizophrenia
20) Confidence 0.23 Published 2008 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2358913 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.53

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