INT94125

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Context Info
Confidence 0.67
First Reported 2001
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 38
Total Number 39
Disease Relevance 21.73
Pain Relevance 7.75

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

plasma membrane (Cd28)
Anatomy Link Frequency
T cells 22
peripheral nerve 2
blood cells 2
blood 1
B cells 1
Cd28 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
abatacept 98 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
rheumatoid arthritis 826 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 191 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 292 98.76 Very High Very High Very High
Neuritis 12 97.72 Very High Very High Very High
qutenza 6 97.52 Very High Very High Very High
tolerance 93 97.32 Very High Very High Very High
Infliximab 9 96.88 Very High Very High Very High
Multiple sclerosis 9 94.40 High High
spinal inflammation 159 93.44 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Disease 595 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Syndrome 20 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Rheumatoid Arthritis 831 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 333 98.76 Very High Very High Very High
Necrosis 51 98.68 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 59 98.50 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 100 98.48 Very High Very High Very High
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 203 98.44 Very High Very High Very High
Infection 63 97.84 Very High Very High Very High
Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis 12 97.72 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
CD28-deficient mutant (CD28-/-) C57BL/6 mice and corresponding wild-type mice were immunized with P0 peptide 180-199, a purified component of peripheral nerve myelin, and Freund's complete adjuvant.
Gene_expression (deficient) of CD28 in peripheral nerve
1) Confidence 0.67 Published 2001 Journal J. Neuroimmunol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11240022 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0.47
CD28-deficient mutant (CD28-/-) C57BL/6 mice and corresponding wild-type mice were immunized with P0 peptide 180-199, a purified component of peripheral nerve myelin, and Freund's complete adjuvant.
Gene_expression (deficient) of CD28 in peripheral nerve
2) Confidence 0.67 Published 2001 Journal J. Neuroimmunol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11240022 Disease Relevance 0.79 Pain Relevance 0.47
dominant CD4+CD28null T-cell subsets did not respond either to pp65 or to immediate early antigens, indicating that the TCR-V?
Gene_expression (subsets) of CD28null in T-cell
3) Confidence 0.62 Published 2007 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2212553 Disease Relevance 0.58 Pain Relevance 0.08
CD28 is expressed on all naïve T cells, but may be lost with T-cell differentiation.
Gene_expression (expressed) of CD28 in T-cell
4) Confidence 0.56 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2582810 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0
It should be noted that cell surface expression of CD28 in rodent models is different, and that CD28 is expressed by all murine functional T-cell subsets, irrespective of age or disease.
Gene_expression (expression) of CD28 in T-cell associated with disease
5) Confidence 0.56 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2582810 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0
One contributing factor may be tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which has been shown to downregulate the number of CD28 molecules that are expressed on each individual cell and which may also in part be responsible for the complete loss of CD28 expression in some cells [19].
Gene_expression (expression) of CD28 associated with necrosis and cancer
6) Confidence 0.56 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2582810 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0
It should be noted that cell surface expression of CD28 in rodent models is different, and that CD28 is expressed by all murine functional T-cell subsets, irrespective of age or disease.
Gene_expression (expressed) of CD28 in T-cell associated with disease
7) Confidence 0.56 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2582810 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0
One contributing factor may be tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which has been shown to downregulate the number of CD28 molecules that are expressed on each individual cell and which may also in part be responsible for the complete loss of CD28 expression in some cells [19].
Gene_expression (expressed) of CD28 associated with necrosis and cancer
8) Confidence 0.56 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2582810 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0
Data from in vitro experiments indicate that cytokines such as TNF and IL-12 in synovial fluid can modify CD28 expression, complicating the analyses of CD4+CD28null T cells in the joint [19,20].
Gene_expression (expression) of CD28 in T cells associated with cytokine
9) Confidence 0.55 Published 2007 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2212553 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0.22
We had a unique opportunity to investigate the presence of these CD4+CD28null T cells in the synovial membrane, the synovial fluid and peripheral blood from the same patients in a large cohort of RA patients.
Spec (investigate) Gene_expression (presence) of CD28null in blood associated with rheumatoid arthritis
10) Confidence 0.55 Published 2007 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2212553 Disease Relevance 1.00 Pain Relevance 0.25
The concept of modulation of such pathomechanisms by potent anti-inflammatory treatment, such as TNF inhibitors, is supported by the observed up-regulation of CD28 expression on T-cells in patients with RA treated with the monoclonal anti-TNF antibody infliximab by Bryl and colleagues (2005).
Gene_expression (expression) of CD28 in T-cells associated with infliximab, inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis
11) Confidence 0.53 Published 2008 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2515420 Disease Relevance 1.29 Pain Relevance 0.36
Also, CD28 expression is augmented in T cells of the synovial tissue as compared with cells from peripheral blood.
Gene_expression (expression) of CD28 in T cells
12) Confidence 0.49 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2833979 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 0.53
These cells, lacking CD28 on their cell surface, do not rely on co-stimulation for reactivation [52], and as potent producers of proinflammatory cytokines they may be at an advantage if the rest of the T cell pool, expressing CD28, is suppressed by abatacept.
Gene_expression (expressing) of CD28 in T cell associated with abatacept and cytokine
13) Confidence 0.49 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2833979 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.37
In addressing the potential mechanism of action of abatacept in RA patients, it is of interest to examine whether levels of CD28, CTLA4 and CD80/86 vary among cells in the circulation and in different inflammatory compartments.
Gene_expression (levels) of CD28 associated with inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis and abatacept
14) Confidence 0.49 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2833979 Disease Relevance 0.98 Pain Relevance 0.56
Interestingly, as shown in Fig. 6a, upon in vitro re-stimulation with plate-bound anti-CD3 and soluble anti-CD28, CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25?
Gene_expression (shown) of CD28
15) Confidence 0.45 Published 2010 Journal Diabetologia Section Body Doc Link PMC2910887 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 0.09
CD28 expression is regulated at the level of a CD28-specific initiator complex that includes the nuclear proteins nucleolin and hnRPD [49,50].
Gene_expression (expression) of CD28
16) Confidence 0.44 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193735 Disease Relevance 0.60 Pain Relevance 0.07
Expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that have lost the expression of CD28, and are presumably senescent, has been observed in several autoimmune diseases including diabetes mellitus, RA, Wegener's granulomatosis, multiple sclerosis, and ankylosing spondylitis [60-64].
Gene_expression (expression) of CD28 in T cells associated with spinal inflammation, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune disease, diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis
17) Confidence 0.44 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193735 Disease Relevance 1.08 Pain Relevance 0.35
Effector T-cell populations expanded in RA are unlikely to be amenable to CTLA-4Ig, in particular because they have frequently lost CD28 expression, which is in sharp contrast to rodent systems.
Gene_expression (expression) of CD28 in Effector T-cell associated with rheumatoid arthritis
18) Confidence 0.44 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2582810 Disease Relevance 0.96 Pain Relevance 0.17
CD28 is constitutively expressed on naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.
Gene_expression (expressed) of CD28 in T cells
19) Confidence 0.44 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2582810 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.08
A comparison of CD28 levels on the surface of peripheral blood cells of healthy individuals and RA patients [49] clearly demonstrated the highest levels of CD28 in patients with active disease.
Gene_expression (levels) of CD28 in blood cells associated with rheumatoid arthritis and disease
20) Confidence 0.42 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2833979 Disease Relevance 0.79 Pain Relevance 0.51

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