INT94126

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Context Info
Confidence 0.50
First Reported 2001
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 9
Total Number 9
Disease Relevance 4.23
Pain Relevance 1.33

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

plasma membrane (Cd28)
Anatomy Link Frequency
T cells 6
B cells 1
Cd28 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
rheumatoid arthritis 48 97.40 Very High Very High Very High
Neuritis 6 96.04 Very High Very High Very High
Demyelination 1 93.36 High High
Sciatic nerve 2 92.12 High High
Inflammation 170 89.40 High High
cytokine 165 85.32 High High
Potency 3 83.44 Quite High
tolerance 15 81.56 Quite High
addiction 2 75.20 Quite High
Leflunomide 1 73.92 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Viral Infection 5 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
Rheumatoid Arthritis 48 97.40 Very High Very High Very High
Cytomegalovirus Infection 20 97.16 Very High Very High Very High
Apoptosis 117 96.76 Very High Very High Very High
Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis 6 96.04 Very High Very High Very High
Death 48 95.40 Very High Very High Very High
Demyelinating Disease 9 93.36 High High
Disease 295 93.20 High High
Autoimmune Disease 38 91.20 High High
INFLAMMATION 190 89.40 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
ICOS is a CD28 homolog that is upregulated on naïve T cells after activation and on memory and effector T cells [58,59].
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of CD28 in T cells
1) Confidence 0.50 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2582810 Disease Relevance 0.42 Pain Relevance 0.10
Evidently, CD28 is required for interaction with B7 to regulate the activation of T and B cells that initiates development of EAN.
Positive_regulation (required) of CD28 in B cells associated with neuritis
2) Confidence 0.50 Published 2001 Journal J. Neuroimmunol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11240022 Disease Relevance 0.93 Pain Relevance 0.63
production by this population, although FOXP3 levels were reduced within the CD4+CD25+ population after anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation (Fig. 6a).
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of CD28
3) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal Diabetologia Section Body Doc Link PMC2910887 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 0.08
A fusion protein comprised of CTLA4 fused to an immunoglobulin Fc portion (CTLA-4Ig), which binds to the costimulatory molecules B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) and thus prevents CD28/B7 interaction and subsequent activation of the CD28 receptor on T cells, appears to be highly effective in treating RA.13 Although these data will have to be confirmed in further trials, not only do these results suggest that therapies directed at interfering with T-cell activities may be as effective as other DMARDs, but also that T cells are involved in the pathogenesis of RA.
Positive_regulation (activation) of CD28 in T-cell associated with rheumatoid arthritis
4) Confidence 0.30 Published 2006 Journal Mod Rheumatol Section Body Doc Link PMC2780633 Disease Relevance 0.64 Pain Relevance 0.37
An additional important feature of inflammaging which contributes to defective T-cell function and adaptive immunity is accumulation of CD28-CD8+ T-cells and the loss of naïve CD8+ T-cells.
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of CD28 in T-cells
5) Confidence 0.25 Published 2008 Journal J Neuroinflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2615427 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.03
The accumulation of CD28-CD8+ T-cells was also shown in patients with viral infections such as CMV [45].
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of CD28 in T-cells associated with viral infection and cytomegalovirus infection
6) Confidence 0.25 Published 2008 Journal J Neuroinflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2615427 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0
Lamina propria T cells differ from peripherial blood T cells in the fact that the former are better activated by CD2 and CD28 stimulation and show a high expression of IL-2 and IFN?
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of CD28 in T cells
7) Confidence 0.19 Published 2007 Journal BMC Immunol Section Body Doc Link PMC2045662 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 0.03
We thus investigated caspases-3, -8 and -9 activity in Gal-4 treated anti-CD3/CD28 stimulated PBT using fluorogenic substrate assays.
Positive_regulation (stimulated) of CD28
8) Confidence 0.10 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 0.95 Pain Relevance 0.03
Determination of Gal-4 binding to T cells was performed by incubating resting and for 48 h CD3/CD28-stimulated PBT and CD2-stimulated LPT with 5 µg/ml Gal-4, a dose not able to induce T cell apoptosis.
Positive_regulation (stimulated) of CD28 in T cells associated with apoptosis
9) Confidence 0.10 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2440804 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.06

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