INT96637

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Context Info
Confidence 0.76
First Reported 2001
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 21
Total Number 27
Disease Relevance 8.15
Pain Relevance 9.53

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

lyase activity (Gad2) Golgi apparatus (Gad2) plasma membrane (Gad2)
cytoplasm (Gad2)
Anatomy Link Frequency
brain 4
embryonic brains 2
pyramidal cells 1
sensory neurons 1
dendrites 1
Gad2 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
gABA 411 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 92 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 9 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 5 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
GABAergic 235 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 127 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Pyramidal cell 162 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
interneuron 30 98.42 Very High Very High Very High
Dorsal horn 33 96.28 Very High Very High Very High
hyperexcitability 6 95.36 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 66 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 332 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Umbilical Hernia 168 98.88 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 35 98.04 Very High Very High Very High
Aids-related Complex 3 97.26 Very High Very High Very High
Ataxia 12 96.32 Very High Very High Very High
Syndrome 50 94.72 High High
Convulsion 21 94.48 High High
Stiff-person Syndrome 4 94.48 High High
Inguinal Hernia 7 94.36 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
These results support the hypothesis that GAD65-mediated GABA synthesis plays relatively small but significant roles in nociceptive processing via supraspinal mechanisms.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of GAD65-mediated associated with nociception and gaba
1) Confidence 0.76 Published 2009 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 19571163 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0.35
In order to assess for the respective involvement of adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors (A(2A)-R) in the consequences of short- and long-term caffeine exposure on gene expression, the effects of acute caffeine administration on striatal, cortical, and hippocampal expression of immediate early genes (IEG), zif-268 and arc, and the effects of long-term caffeine or 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX) exposure (once daily for 15 days) on striatal gene expression of substance P, enkephalin, and glutamic acid decarboxylase isoforms, GAD65 and GAD67, were evaluated in wild-type and A(2A)-R-deficient (A(2A)-R(-/-)) mice.
Gene_expression (expression) of glutamic acid decarboxylase associated with adenocard, aids-related complex, enkephalin and substance p
2) Confidence 0.75 Published 2001 Journal Synapse Section Abstract Doc Link 11574941 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.30
Mower and Guo (2001) reported approximately 30 GAD65 positive puncta per 400 ?
Gene_expression (puncta) of GAD65
3) Confidence 0.66 Published 2009 Journal Neural Plasticity Section Body Doc Link PMC2686200 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.09
If each interneuron creates approximately 10 synaptic contacts, and there are a total of about 20 GAD65 positive synapses on the soma of a pyramidal cell in normal-reared animals as our data indicate, this suggests that only 2 interneurons influence somatic integration in pyramidal cells.
Gene_expression (synapses) of GAD65 in pyramidal cell associated with pyramidal cell and interneuron
4) Confidence 0.66 Published 2009 Journal Neural Plasticity Section Body Doc Link PMC2686200 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.49
Number, volume, and fluorescence intensity of GAD65 puncta contacting each YFP labeled pyramidal cell body were then quantified.
Gene_expression (puncta) of GAD65 in body associated with pyramidal cell
5) Confidence 0.66 Published 2009 Journal Neural Plasticity Section Body Doc Link PMC2686200 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
Representative examples of GAD65 staining and YFP signal from a visual cortex layer 2/3 from each group is shown in Figure 1.
Gene_expression (staining) of GAD65 in cortex
6) Confidence 0.66 Published 2009 Journal Neural Plasticity Section Body Doc Link PMC2686200 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.03
The onset of GAD65 expression has been shown to coincide with GABAergic synaptogenesis in the cerebellum [30].
Gene_expression (expression) of GAD65 in cerebellum associated with gabaergic
7) Confidence 0.65 Published 2008 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2689695 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.14
Transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) controlled by glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) promoter (Lopez-Benedito et al., 2004) or PV promoter (Meyer et al., 2002) were used.
Gene_expression (expressing) of GAD65 associated with targeted disruption and glutamate
8) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal The European Journal of Neuroscience Section Body Doc Link PMC2916217 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.23
Striatal expression of substance P and enkephalin mRNAs was reduced by about 50% and 30%, respectively, whereas the expression of GAD67 and GAD65 mRNAs was slightly increased and unaltered, respectively.
Gene_expression (expression) of GAD65 associated with enkephalin and substance p
9) Confidence 0.65 Published 2001 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 11432985 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.65
Conversely, the amounts of the GABA-synthesizing enzymes GAD65 and GAD67 were not different in between the brains of VGAT-/- mice and their control littermates (Figure 2B).
Gene_expression (synthesizing) of GAD65 in brains associated with gaba
10) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal Mol Brain Section Body Doc Link PMC3023674 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.60
Two isozymes of GAD, GAD65 and GAD67, are primarily expressed in GABAergic neurons [4,5].
Gene_expression (expressed) of GAD65 in GABAergic neurons associated with generalized anxiety disorder and gabaergic
11) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal Mol Brain Section Body Doc Link PMC3023674 Disease Relevance 0.88 Pain Relevance 0.70
Our Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of both GAD65 and GAD67 in VGAT+/+ and VGAT-/- brains were similar (Figure 2B).
Gene_expression (expression) of GAD65 in brains
12) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal Mol Brain Section Body Doc Link PMC3023674 Disease Relevance 0.21 Pain Relevance 0.62
To test for this possibility, we analyzed the expression levels of GAD65 and GAD67 in the embryonic brains.
Spec (analyzed) Gene_expression (expression) of GAD65 in embryonic brains
13) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal Mol Brain Section Body Doc Link PMC3023674 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.60
In order to assess for the respective involvement of adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors (A(2A)-R) in the consequences of short- and long-term caffeine exposure on gene expression, the effects of acute caffeine administration on striatal, cortical, and hippocampal expression of immediate early genes (IEG), zif-268 and arc, and the effects of long-term caffeine or 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX) exposure (once daily for 15 days) on striatal gene expression of substance P, enkephalin, and glutamic acid decarboxylase isoforms, GAD65 and GAD67, were evaluated in wild-type and A(2A)-R-deficient (A(2A)-R(-/-)) mice.
Gene_expression (expression) of GAD65 associated with adenocard, aids-related complex, enkephalin and substance p
14) Confidence 0.57 Published 2001 Journal Synapse Section Abstract Doc Link 11574941 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.30
To examine the precise relationship among stellate cell presynaptic terminals, BG fibers, and Purkinje dendrites, we performed triple labeling with GAD65 and GFAP antibodies in our Pv-GFP mice.
Gene_expression (antibodies) of GAD65 in dendrites
15) Confidence 0.57 Published 2008 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2689695 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0
GABA-mediated synaptic transmission is thought to be functionally impaired by the production of autoantibodies to GAD65 and GAD67 [35-37].
Gene_expression (production) of GAD65 associated with gaba
16) Confidence 0.56 Published 2004 Journal BMC Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC544830 Disease Relevance 1.58 Pain Relevance 0.46
Previous reports indicate that, in this transgenic line, virtually all (> 98%) of EGFP+ cells co-express GAD65 [14].
Gene_expression (express) of GAD65 associated with targeted disruption
17) Confidence 0.51 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2689203 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0.47
To test for inhibitory input to GAD65-EGFP+ neurons, we recorded responses to focal stimulation in the presence of CNQX and APV.
Gene_expression (neurons) of GAD65 in neurons
18) Confidence 0.51 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2689203 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.15
Towards this, we used transgenic mice that express EGFP under the control of the glutamate decarboxylase 65 gene (GAD65), the enzyme that catalyzes the production of GABA[13], to be able to visually identify GABAergic interneurons and perform targeted recordings from them in live spinal cord slices.
Gene_expression (production) of GAD65 in spinal cord associated with targeted disruption, gaba, glutamate, gabaergic and spinal cord
19) Confidence 0.51 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2689203 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0.67
A small amount of GABA is synthesized by another GAD isoform, GAD65, at the embryonic stage [8,43].
Gene_expression (synthesized) of GAD65 in embryonic stage associated with gaba and generalized anxiety disorder
20) Confidence 0.51 Published 2010 Journal Mol Brain Section Body Doc Link PMC3023674 Disease Relevance 1.16 Pain Relevance 0.24

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