INT9780

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Context Info
Confidence 0.60
First Reported 1986
Last Reported 2010
Negated 6
Speculated 7
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 30
Total Number 37
Disease Relevance 6.78
Pain Relevance 17.19

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
striatum 5
brain 3
hypothalamus 3
nucleus 2
nucleus accumbens 2
Penk (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Morphine 117 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 109 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
cocaine 20 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Endogenous opioid 6 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nicotine 19 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Substantia nigra 1 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
GABA receptor 2 99.54 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 6 99.40 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 16 99.32 Very High Very High Very High
opioid receptor 23 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Convulsion 6 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 111 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 32 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 25 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Drug Dependence 3 98.12 Very High Very High Very High
Aggression 2 98.04 Very High Very High Very High
Anxiety Disorder 2 97.44 Very High Very High Very High
Nicotine Addiction 2 96.88 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperalgesia 4 96.56 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 31 88.40 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Regulation of striatal preproenkephalin mRNA levels in MPTP-lesioned mice treated with estradiol.
Regulation (Regulation) of preproenkephalin mRNA associated with parkinson's disease and enkephalin
1) Confidence 0.60 Published 2005 Journal J. Neurosci. Res. Section Title Doc Link 15723346 Disease Relevance 0.42 Pain Relevance 0.57
Regional differences in opioid metabolism indicate that NEP evokes tissue-specific patterns of ENK-regulation.
Regulation (regulation) of ENK associated with enkephalin and opioid
2) Confidence 0.60 Published 1997 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 9347938 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 1.42
The effects of cocaine-induced seizures on the proenkephalin mRNA level in the mouse hippocampus: a possible involvement of the nitric oxide pathway.
Spec (possible) Regulation (effects) of proenkephalin mRNA in hippocampus associated with convulsion, enkephalin, hippocampus and cocaine
3) Confidence 0.59 Published 1994 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Title Doc Link 8028798 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.42
From comparative microarray expression analyses and quantitative real-time PCR, we identified three additional targets, Sostdc1, Penk1 and Igfbp5, which were also severely affected.
Regulation (affected) of Penk1
4) Confidence 0.56 Published 2010 Journal Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 20024692 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.09
The regulation and possible function of the preproenkephalin gene in testis were studied in vivo in transgenic mice containing: (1) bases -193 to +210 of the human proenkephalin gene and an additional one kilobase of 3' proenkephalin flanking sequence driving expression of bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), and (2) the same promoter and flanking sequences driving expression of a rat proenkephalin cDNA.
Spec (possible) Regulation (regulation) of preproenkephalin gene in testis associated with targeted disruption
5) Confidence 0.54 Published 1994 Journal Mol. Reprod. Dev. Section Abstract Doc Link 7917279 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.05
Dopaminergic neurons that project to the striatum from the substantia nigra are thought to modulate methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk) metabolism in the striatum.
Regulation (modulate) of Met-Enk in Dopaminergic neurons associated with substantia nigra and enkephalin
6) Confidence 0.54 Published 1991 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 1899692 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.34
As shown by an in situ hybridization, a single dose of morphine had no significant effect on the PDYN, PENK and D2 mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens and striatum.
Neg (no) Regulation (effect) of PENK in nucleus accumbens associated with nucleus accumbens and morphine
7) Confidence 0.54 Published 1997 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 9574833 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.88
Effects of acute "binge" cocaine on preprodynorphin, preproenkephalin, proopiomelanocortin, and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor mRNA levels in the striatum and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of mu-opioid receptor knockout mice.
Regulation (Effects) of preproenkephalin in striatum associated with targeted disruption, enkephalin, opioid receptor and cocaine
8) Confidence 0.50 Published 2002 Journal Synapse Section Title Doc Link 12125043 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.76
We studied the changes of met-enkephalin (Met-Enk) content and preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA in the striatum in a mouse model of nicotine abstinence.
Regulation (changes) of Met-Enk in striatum associated with nicotine and enkephalin
9) Confidence 0.49 Published 2002 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 12023068 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.37
Estrogen regulation of preproenkephalin messenger RNA in the forebrain of female mice.
Regulation (regulation) of preproenkephalin in forebrain associated with enkephalin
10) Confidence 0.45 Published 1996 Journal J. Chem. Neuroanat. Section Title Doc Link 9001946 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0.17
Here we report reliable and reproducible reporter gene expression under the control of the 5' upstream regulatory region of the mouse ENK gene in gene-modified mice using this Cre-mediated knock-in strategy.
Regulation (control) of ENK gene associated with targeted disruption
11) Confidence 0.45 Published 2003 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 12562513 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0.08
In conditioned suppression group, the contents of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and methionine-enkephalin (Met-enk) did not change in the hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and medulla oblongata/pons, while a decrease in the contents of striatal DOPAC were induced compared to that in the control group, which was accompanied by reduction in the contents of Met-enk.
Neg (not) Regulation (change) of enk in cerebral cortex associated with medulla, dopamine, enkephalin and cerebral cortex
12) Confidence 0.44 Published 1986 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 3801908 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.75
We tested this finding by determining the effect of 4-56 days of ethanol delivered in liquid feed on levels of brain Met-Enk.
Spec (determining) Regulation (effect) of Met-Enk in brain
13) Confidence 0.39 Published 2003 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 15127945 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.22
Effects of single (20 mg/kg i.p.) and repeated morphine administration (increasing doses: from 10 to 50 mg/kg i.p. twice daily for 7 days) on the proenkephalin (PENK), prodynorphin (PDYN) and dopamine D2 receptor (D2) mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens and striatum of the mouse were investigated.
Spec (investigated) Regulation (Effects) of PENK in nucleus accumbens associated with nucleus accumbens, dopamine and morphine
14) Confidence 0.39 Published 1997 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 9574833 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.65
Therefore, we conclude that Met-ENK effects are mediated via opioid receptors on spleen cells and that the observed anti-FLV activity is dependent on the use of Met-ENK stimulated spleen cells in combination with AZT.
Regulation (effects) of Met-ENK in spleen associated with opioid receptor
15) Confidence 0.39 Published 1996 Journal Int. J. Immunopharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 8933209 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.47
Proenkephalin gene regulation in the neuroendocrine hypothalamus: a model of gene regulation in the CNS.
Regulation (regulation) of Proenkephalin gene in hypothalamus associated with enkephalin
16) Confidence 0.34 Published 1995 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Section Title Doc Link 7573416 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.26
The effect of the endogenous opioid peptides, methionine-enkephalin (Met-ENK), beta-endorphin (beta-END) and dynorphin-(1-17) (DYN) on the aversive behavior produced by intrathecal (i.t.) administration of substance P (SP) was studied in mice.
Regulation (effect) of Met-ENK associated with dynorphin, endogenous opioid, enkephalin, substance p and intrathecal
17) Confidence 0.31 Published 1988 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2451988 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.83
The marked behavioral changes in ppENK knock-out (KO) mice appeared to occur in supraspinal response to painful stimuli.
Regulation (changes) of ppENK associated with targeted disruption and pain
18) Confidence 0.27 Published 2008 Journal Mol Pain Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2569012 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.51
One area of discrepancy is the effect of chronic ethanol administration on the level of immunoactive Met-Enk in brain, with some authors reporting increased and others reporting decreased levels.
Regulation (effect) of Met-Enk in brain
19) Confidence 0.24 Published 2003 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 15127945 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.22
These results support the hypothesis that exposure to ethanol alters brain Met-Enk in a way consistent with the reinforcement of physical dependence.
Regulation (alters) of Met-Enk in brain associated with physical dependence
20) Confidence 0.24 Published 2003 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 15127945 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.20

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