INT97892

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Context Info
Confidence 0.49
First Reported 2001
Last Reported 2010
Negated 10
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 31
Total Number 31
Disease Relevance 13.43
Pain Relevance 1.70

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Ghrl) extracellular region (Ghrl) cytoplasm (Ghrl)
Anatomy Link Frequency
islets of Langerhans 10
brain 7
neurons 6
adipose tissue 6
pancreatic islets 4
Ghrl (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
GABAergic 27 99.46 Very High Very High Very High
Calcium channel 42 99.40 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 250 96.92 Very High Very High Very High
Action potential 108 94.48 High High
Glutamate 12 92.80 High High
Somatostatin 97 91.32 High High
tolerance 279 88.88 High High
Neuropeptide 20 77.60 Quite High
gABA 18 72.20 Quite High
sodium channel 99 43.80 Quite Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Targeted Disruption 869 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 950 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 17 99.40 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 458 98.68 Very High Very High Very High
Starvation 20 98.56 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperphagia 63 89.92 High High
Anxiety Disorder 32 89.80 High High
Impaired Glucose Tolerance 302 89.52 High High
Weight Gain 23 88.44 High High
Syndrome 178 88.36 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In addition, they were observed to have lower serum leptin and elevated ghrelin levels, where leptin is known to act as an appetite suppressant, whereas ghrelin seems to stimulate hunger.25
Positive_regulation (elevated) of Gene_expression (levels) of ghrelin
1) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal Int J Gen Med Section Body Doc Link PMC2990395 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0
Ghrelin expression is not limited to the stomach, but is found at many other sites such as the small intestine, brain, pituitary, lung, skeletal muscle, islets of Langerhans, adrenal glands, ovary, and testis [22].
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (limited) of Gene_expression (expression) of Ghrelin in islets of Langerhans
2) Confidence 0.37 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0
Ghrelin expression in NSE-ghrelin brain tissues was increased compared with wild-type mice; it was also increased to a much smaller extent in liver of these mice, but in stomach or duodenum did not differ from wild-type mice.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of Ghrelin in liver
3) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.07
Thus, GABAergic neurotransmission was not necessary for the stimulatory effect of ghrelin on GHRH neurons.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (necessary) of Gene_expression (effect) of ghrelin in neurons associated with gabaergic
4) Confidence 0.30 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.32
Reed et al. created mice with ghrelin overexpressed in neurons using the neuron-specific enolase (NSE) promoter sequences and mouse ghrelin cDNA (NSE-ghrelin).
Positive_regulation (overexpressed) of Gene_expression (overexpressed) of ghrelin in neuron
5) Confidence 0.30 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.03
The metabolic profile of Snord116del mice showed decreased fat utilization, which is consistent with their elevated plasma ghrelin levels, as ghrelin administration in rodents leads to an increased respiratory quotient indicating less fat usage [54].
Positive_regulation (elevated) of Gene_expression (levels) of ghrelin in respiratory
6) Confidence 0.27 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2248623 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0.03
Peripheral ghrelin or GHS induce rapid c-fos expression in GHRH neurons [16], [17], [58].
Positive_regulation (Peripheral) of Gene_expression (Peripheral) of ghrelin in neurons
7) Confidence 0.26 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.09
The effect of ghrelin does not require synaptic transmission, as it is not antagonized by ?
Positive_regulation (effect) of Gene_expression (effect) of ghrelin
8) Confidence 0.26 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.26
As shown in Fig. 6G, ghrelin levels in adult Snord116del mice with ad libitum access to food are increased to 2.3±0.3 fold compared to WT level (P<0.002).
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (levels) of ghrelin
9) Confidence 0.25 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2248623 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0
Thus, pharmacological, immunological, and genetic blockade of ghrelin or ghrelin action in pancreatic islets all markedly enhanced glucose-induced insulin release and improve the diabetic condition.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Gene_expression (action) of ghrelin in pancreatic islets associated with diabetes mellitus
10) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.98 Pain Relevance 0
In another line of transgenic mice, Zhang et al. created animals in which the ghrelin gene is overexpressed in adipose tissue via the fatty acid-binding protein-4 (FABP4) promoter.
Positive_regulation (overexpressed) of Gene_expression (overexpressed) of ghrelin gene in adipose tissue associated with targeted disruption and obesity
11) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.88 Pain Relevance 0.11
Thus, pharmacological, immunological, and genetic blockade of ghrelin or ghrelin action in pancreatic islets all markedly enhanced glucose-induced insulin release and improve the diabetic condition.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Gene_expression (action) of ghrelin in pancreatic islets associated with diabetes mellitus
12) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.99 Pain Relevance 0
expression with siRNA provoked that the inhibitory effects of ghrelin or overexpression of IA-2?
Positive_regulation (overexpression) of Gene_expression (overexpression) of ghrelin
13) Confidence 0.23 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.03
Overexpression of ghrelin from the FABP4 promoter reduced the weight of white adipose tissues and resistance to HFD-induced obesity [26].
Positive_regulation (Overexpression) of Gene_expression (Overexpression) of ghrelin in adipose tissues associated with obesity
14) Confidence 0.23 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.98 Pain Relevance 0.15
There are some studies realized with ghrelin transgenic mouse with overexpression of ghrelin in different tissues or cellular types (Table 6).
Positive_regulation (overexpression) of Gene_expression (overexpression) of ghrelin associated with targeted disruption
15) Confidence 0.23 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0.06
Transgenic mice overexpressing the ghrelin gene in adipose tissue demonstrated significant increases in plasma concentrations of UAG, whereas ghrelin remained unchanged.
Positive_regulation (overexpressing) of Gene_expression (overexpressing) of ghrelin gene in adipose tissue associated with targeted disruption and obesity
16) Confidence 0.23 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.91 Pain Relevance 0.11
Recently, Bewick et al. generated a mouse model with increased ghrelin expression and production in stomach and brain.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (production) of ghrelin in brain
17) Confidence 0.23 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0.08
Recently, Bewick et al. generated a mouse model with increased ghrelin expression and production in stomach and brain.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of ghrelin in brain
18) Confidence 0.23 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0.08
Ghrelin expression in NSE-ghrelin brain tissues was increased compared with wild-type mice; it was also increased to a much smaller extent in liver of these mice, but in stomach or duodenum did not differ from wild-type mice.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of NSE-ghrelin in liver
19) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.07
Iwakura and colleagues developed and analyzed rat insulin II promoter-ghrelin transgenic mice (RIP-G Tg) in which pancreatic ghrelin concentration was higher than that of nontransgenic littermates; moreover in control mice ghrelin was not detected in  ?
Positive_regulation (pancreatic) of Gene_expression (concentration) of ghrelin associated with targeted disruption
20) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0

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