INT141285

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Context Info
Confidence 0.63
First Reported 2006
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 11
Total Number 13
Disease Relevance 9.38
Pain Relevance 3.86

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Ghrl) extracellular region (Ghrl) cytoplasm (Ghrl)
Anatomy Link Frequency
plasma 2
brain 2
Ghrl (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Serotonin 13 99.94 Very High Very High Very High
antidepressant 22 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
sSRI 37 98.44 Very High Very High Very High
opiate 6 94.16 High High
Pain threshold 20 93.48 High High
Pain 23 92.72 High High
antagonist 78 92.52 High High
Morphine 13 92.32 High High
nud 19 88.40 High High
depression 37 86.76 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Appetite Loss 102 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Eating Disorder 3 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 91 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Gastrointestinal Disease 9 97.52 Very High Very High Very High
Anxiety Disorder 24 96.80 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoglycemia 12 96.68 Very High Very High Very High
Ileus 23 93.68 High High
Pain 38 93.48 High High
Burns 9 93.12 High High
Diabetes Mellitus 30 91.20 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Circulating ghrelin levels negatively correlate with BMI, meaning increased ghrelin secretion during fasting, malnutrition, cachexia, and in anorexia nervosa and reduced ghrelin secretion in obesity.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (secretion) of ghrelin associated with appetite loss, obesity and eating disorder
1) Confidence 0.63 Published 2010 Journal Med. Hypotheses Section Abstract Doc Link 19883981 Disease Relevance 2.15 Pain Relevance 0.99
In this section, the effects of rikkunshito are introduced, with main focus on the action of rikkunshito as an enhancer of ghrelin secretion.
Positive_regulation (enhancer) of Localization (secretion) of ghrelin
2) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915625 Disease Relevance 1.45 Pain Relevance 0.25
For example, tryptophan – the precursor molecule of serotonin – enhances ghrelin expression and secretion [115], antidepressant therapy with an SSRI may attenuate hypothalamic effects of ghrelin [8], and antidepressant therapy with mirtazapine seems to decrease ghrelin levels [83].
Positive_regulation (enhances) of Localization (secretion) of ghrelin associated with antidepressant, ssri and serotonin
3) Confidence 0.45 Published 2008 Journal Current Neuropharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2687935 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.45
Heptamethoxyflavone, an active ingredient flavonoid in rikkunshito, has been shown to have a pivotal effect on stimulation of ghrelin secretion.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of Localization (secretion) of ghrelin
4) Confidence 0.45 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915625 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.13
These findings suggest that the mechanism of improvement of anorexia by rikkunshito may involve ghrelin receptor activation via stimulation of ghrelin secretion from the stomach into the plasma.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of Localization (secretion) of ghrelin in plasma associated with appetite loss
5) Confidence 0.45 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915625 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.16
Circulating ghrelin levels negatively correlate with BMI, meaning increased ghrelin secretion during fasting, malnutrition, cachexia, and in anorexia nervosa and reduced ghrelin secretion in obesity.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (secretion) of ghrelin associated with appetite loss, obesity and eating disorder
6) Confidence 0.42 Published 2010 Journal Med. Hypotheses Section Abstract Doc Link 19883981 Disease Relevance 2.20 Pain Relevance 1.02
Intraduodenal administration of ghrelin also increases pancreatic enzyme secretion.
Positive_regulation (increases) of Localization (secretion) of ghrelin
7) Confidence 0.37 Published 2006 Journal J. Physiol. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 17218761 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.15
Using models identical to those described above, we showed that increasing circulating ghrelin levels by calorie restricting mice for ten days or by acute s.c. administration of ghrelin to ad??
Positive_regulation (restricting) of Localization (administration) of ghrelin
8) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915752 Disease Relevance 0.90 Pain Relevance 0.14
For example, in sheep, ghrelin potentiates glucose-induced insulin secretion, which is antilipoytic [558].
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (secretion) of ghrelin
9) Confidence 0.27 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0
The last observation is significant, because higher doses of ghrelin/GHS evoke ACTH, cortisol, and prolactin secretion acutely in humans and animals, putatively by inducing hypothalamic secretion of one or both primary ACTH-releasing peptides, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), and arginine vasopressin (AVP) [272, 274–278].
Positive_regulation (inducing) of Localization (secretion) of ghrelin
10) Confidence 0.27 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 0.21 Pain Relevance 0.03
Our results showed that the release of ghrelin was not affected by intragastric pH, whereas the release of des-acyl ghrelin was increased at intragastric pH 2 compared to that at intragastric pH 4 [21].
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (release) of ghrelin
11) Confidence 0.27 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915652 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.03
These factors depress brain ghrelin expression, while promoting gastric ghrelin secretion and amplifying CNS responses to ghrelin [9, 418, 419].
Positive_regulation (promoting) of Localization (secretion) of ghrelin in brain
12) Confidence 0.22 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0.08
Clinically, exogenous ghrelin was reported to (1) induce gastric and intestinal MMCs in fasted healthy subjects; (2) increase fundic tone in both fasted and fed healthy subjects; (3) exert controversial effects on gastric emptying and have no effect on postprandial symptoms in healthy subjects; (4) accelerate gastric emptying in dyspeptic and/or gastroparetic patients and have debatable effects on postprandial symptoms in these patients.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Localization (reported) of ghrelin
13) Confidence 0.18 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915793 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.43

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