INT157664

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Context Info
Confidence 0.56
First Reported 2006
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 15
Total Number 15
Disease Relevance 10.87
Pain Relevance 3.80

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (DEFB4A)
Anatomy Link Frequency
enterocytes 2
skin 2
epidermal cells 1
Paneth cells 1
synovium 1
DEFB4A (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
cytokine 229 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
spastic colon 94 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
rheumatoid arthritis 70 98.52 Very High Very High Very High
psoriasis 350 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 149 90.52 High High
Inflammatory response 7 88.48 High High
tolerance 6 85.52 High High
Piles 8 43.32 Quite Low
nud 30 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
chemokine 13 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Injury 16 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Diarrhoea 8 99.58 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 287 99.30 Very High Very High Very High
Irritable Bowel Syndrome /

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Super

89 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
Psoriasis 483 98.94 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammatory Bowel Disease 37 98.88 Very High Very High Very High
Rheumatoid Arthritis 70 98.52 Very High Very High Very High
Hemophilus Infection 240 97.52 Very High Very High Very High
Functional Bowel Disorder 7 96.96 Very High Very High Very High
Eczema 133 95.48 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In the combined RA patients with moderate to high disease activity, a small but significant increase of serum hBD-2 was found compared to the control group (t-test, p<10?
Positive_regulation (increase) of hBD-2 associated with rheumatoid arthritis and disease
1) Confidence 0.56 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2649503 Disease Relevance 1.42 Pain Relevance 0.47
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate significantly elevated levels of HBD-2 in patients with IBS compared with HCs and similar to those with active UC.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of HBD-2
2) Confidence 0.46 Published 2009 Journal Am. J. Gastroenterol. Section Body Doc Link 19174795 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Of the eight beta-defensin genes located on 8p23.1, human beta-defensin-1 (hBD-1) protein, (encoded by DEFB1) and hBD-3 (encoded by DEFB103) are constitutively expressed at low levels in skin [24]. hBD-2 (encoded by DEFB4) is not expressed in normal skin but is highly expressed in psoriatic skin. hBD-4 (encoded by DEFB104) is less well characterized at the protein level but is found in skin by RT-PCR. hBD-2, hBD-3 and hBD-4 can be induced by cytokines and bacterial lipopolysaccharides in various epithelial cell types [25].
Positive_regulation (induced) of hBD-2 in skin associated with psoriasis and cytokine
3) Confidence 0.46 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2649503 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0.18
It has also been shown that antimicrobial peptides in general, and above all hBD-2, are induced in lesional epidermal cells of patients with psoriasis, compared with lesional epidermal cells of patients with atopic dermatitis and normal skin [10], [11].
Positive_regulation (induced) of hBD-2 in epidermal cells associated with psoriasis and eczema
4) Confidence 0.46 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2649503 Disease Relevance 0.65 Pain Relevance 0.16
Direct activation of the beta-defensin 2 promoter was monitored using a beta-defensin 2 promoter-Luciferase construct.
Positive_regulation (activation) of beta-defensin 2 promoter
5) Confidence 0.46 Published 2006 Journal BMC Infect Dis Section Abstract Doc Link PMC1368979 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0.21
Real time quantitative PCR was done to compare the induction of IL-1 alpha or beta-defensin 2 mRNAs and to identify the signaling pathways involved.
Positive_regulation (induction) of beta-defensin 2
6) Confidence 0.46 Published 2006 Journal BMC Infect Dis Section Abstract Doc Link PMC1368979 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0.21
We conclude that these increased circulating hBD-2 levels in patients are derived from cutaneous production, indicating that local hBD-2 concentrations in psoriatic epidermis are likely to be extremely high.
Positive_regulation (increased) of hBD-2 in epidermis associated with psoriasis
7) Confidence 0.43 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2649503 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 0.14
5). qPCR analysis of synovial tissue from RA patients with active disease showed that the synovium is unlikely to be the source of this small increase in hBD-2 protein, as no mRNA for hBD-2 could be detected (see figure 1).
Positive_regulation (increase) of hBD-2 protein in synovium associated with rheumatoid arthritis and disease
8) Confidence 0.43 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2649503 Disease Relevance 1.53 Pain Relevance 0.45
Elevated human beta-defensin-2 levels indicate an activation of the innate immune system in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.
Positive_regulation (Elevated) of beta-defensin-2 in bowel associated with spastic colon
9) Confidence 0.40 Published 2009 Journal Am. J. Gastroenterol. Section Title Doc Link 19174795 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.57
In addition to our own ELISA (recombinant hBD-2 for calibration), we also used a commercial hBD-2 ELISA kit that uses synthetic hBD-2 for calibration.
Positive_regulation (uses) of hBD-2
10) Confidence 0.40 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2649503 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.10
An IL-1 alpha blocking antibody was used to demonstrate the direct involvement of this cytokine on DEFB4 induction.


Positive_regulation (induction) of DEFB4 associated with cytokine
11) Confidence 0.40 Published 2006 Journal BMC Infect Dis Section Abstract Doc Link PMC1368979 Disease Relevance 0.76 Pain Relevance 0.21
This cytokine mixture was recently found to be optimal for induction of a psoriatic phenotype in vitro, as witnessed by high expression levels of CK16, SKALP/elafin and hBD-2 [36]. qPCR analysis of isolated epidermal sheets indicated that hBD-2 mRNA levels (determined as deltaCt values) in these cultures were much higher than in keratinocytes from submerged cultures (not shown), and reached similar high values as found in epidermal sheets from lesional psoriatic skin (see figure 1).
Positive_regulation (levels) of hBD-2 in keratinocytes associated with psoriasis and cytokine
12) Confidence 0.19 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2649503 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.20
Certain epithelial defensins are constitutively expressed (HBD-1), whereas others are induced after tissue injury or exposure to microbes (HBD-2, HBD-3, and HNP-1).13 Paneth cells are a major source of ?
Positive_regulation (induced) of HBD-2 in Paneth cells associated with injury
13) Confidence 0.16 Published 2010 Journal Eplasty Section Body Doc Link PMC2803769 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0
In the study by Langhorst, faecal HBD-2 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while colonic biopsies were tested for HBD-2 peptides by immunohistochemistry.16 Compared with healthy controls, patients with UC and IBS (all of whom had diarrhoea) were found to have elevated HBD-2 faecal levels, and in these patients beta-defensin 2 peptides were demonstrated in colonic epithelial enterocytes.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of HBD-2 in enterocytes associated with inflammatory bowel disease, diarrhoea and spastic colon
14) Confidence 0.10 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility Section Body Doc Link PMC2879823 Disease Relevance 0.96 Pain Relevance 0.81
Here, the induction of human beta defensin-2 in enterocytes seems to play a key role in preventing acute attacks [31] with EcN flagellin being an important contributing factor [32].
Positive_regulation (induction) of defensin-2 in enterocytes
15) Confidence 0.01 Published 2010 Journal BMC Complement Altern Med Section Body Doc Link PMC2861635 Disease Relevance 0.81 Pain Relevance 0.08

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