INT1761

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Context Info
Confidence 0.49
First Reported 1979
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 3
Reported most in Body
Documents 135
Total Number 141
Disease Relevance 90.17
Pain Relevance 26.26

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

plasma membrane (PTGER2) signal transducer activity (PTGER2)
Anatomy Link Frequency
PGE2 10
cartilage 6
plasma 5
fibroblasts 3
articular cartilage 3
PTGER2 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Inflammation 2542 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
COX2 50 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 3 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoarthritis 1347 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
COX-2 inhibitor 920 99.62 Very High Very High Very High
noradrenaline 7 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
metalloproteinase 2318 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
rheumatoid arthritis 62 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 2086 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
aspirin 94 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
INFLAMMATION 2896 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Adenocarcinoma 1086 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Fever 283 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Ulcers 16 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Herpes Simplex Virus 4523 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Infection 2128 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Apoptosis 1956 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoarthritis 1471 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Aortic Aneurysms 3 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Adhesions 1091 99.64 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that TNF-alpha stimulates upregulation and release of m-calpain in chondrocytic HCS-2/8 cells, and that stimulation of EP2-PGE(2) receptor by produced PGE(2) is deeply involved in this process.


Positive_regulation (stimulation) of EP2
1) Confidence 0.49 Published 2004 Journal Osteoarthr. Cartil. Section Body Doc Link 15501405 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0
Activation of FP and EP2 receptors stimulates several intracellular second messenger mechanisms (Lindsey et al 1994; Zhan et al 1998), which are thought to activate the biosynthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of neutral proteinases that have a lytic effect on extracellular matrix molecules.


Positive_regulation (Activation) of EP2 in extracellular matrix associated with metalloproteinase
2) Confidence 0.45 Published 2007 Journal Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.) Section Body Doc Link PMC2701126 Disease Relevance 0.46 Pain Relevance 0.11
The conclusion is that the human blood platelet alpha-adrenoceptors, although resembling the properties of the alpha 2-subtype, form either a separate subclass of the receptors or a heterogeneous population of the alpha 2-subtype and an adrenergic receptor different from both alpha 1- and alpha 2-subclasses.
Positive_regulation (population) of 2-subtype in blood platelet
3) Confidence 0.43 Published 1986 Journal Pharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 3797465 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
Both subgroups increased their IGF-1 production similarly in response to PGE2, while the high OA subgroup showed a blunted response to PTH compared to the low OA group.
Positive_regulation (increased) of PGE2 in PGE2 associated with osteoarthritis
4) Confidence 0.32 Published 2006 Journal Bone Section Abstract Doc Link 16257278 Disease Relevance 1.46 Pain Relevance 0.63
Here, we determined that the elevated PGE2 levels in the high OA subgroup were linked with enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels compared to normal and low OA Ob.
Spec (determined) Positive_regulation (elevated) of PGE2 in PGE2 associated with osteoarthritis
5) Confidence 0.32 Published 2006 Journal Bone Section Abstract Doc Link 16257278 Disease Relevance 1.39 Pain Relevance 0.53
Activation of the low-affinity PGE2 receptors is likely to be important in mediating the actions of the much higher concentrations of PGE2 found in various pathologic inflammatory processes [36].
Positive_regulation (Activation) of PGE2 associated with inflammation
6) Confidence 0.29 Published 2007 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2206385 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.18
Simultaneous stimulation of EP2 and EP4 is necessary and sufficient to elicit the effect of PGE2 on the differentiation of rat primary chondrocytes [37].
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of EP2 in chondrocytes
7) Confidence 0.29 Published 2007 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2206385 Disease Relevance 0.55 Pain Relevance 0.22
More recently, a study comparing EP receptor expression in nasal biopsies from aspirin intolerant and tolerant patients showed an up-regulation of EP1 and EP2 in structural cells from aspirin intolerant subjects [15].
Positive_regulation (up) of EP2 in structural cells associated with aspirin
8) Confidence 0.28 Published 2006 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC1481584 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0.34
EP2 and EP4 mRNA was up-regulated in both CRS groups when compared with normal subjects (Figure 1b).
Positive_regulation (regulated) of EP2
9) Confidence 0.28 Published 2006 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC1481584 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
More recently, a study comparing EP receptor expression in nasal biopsies from aspirin intolerant and tolerant patients showed an up-regulation of EP1 and EP2 in structural cells from aspirin intolerant subjects [15].
Positive_regulation (-) of EP2 in structural cells associated with aspirin
10) Confidence 0.28 Published 2006 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC1481584 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0.34
2 that are accompanied by upregulation of PGE2 at the levels of gene expression and secretion [3].
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of PGE2
11) Confidence 0.28 Published 2007 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2206385 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 0.24
An increase in PGE2 levels in OA articular cartilage explants was accompanied by a linear (correlation coefficient r = -0.507; P = 0.044) decrease in collagen cleavage.


Positive_regulation (increase) of PGE2 in cleavage associated with osteoarthritis
12) Confidence 0.28 Published 2007 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2206385 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.26
However, the present results do support our previous suggestion that increased generation of PGE2 is associated with the predominantly inhibitory effect of TGF-?
Positive_regulation (generation) of PGE2
13) Confidence 0.28 Published 2007 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2206385 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.08
For instance, augmenting E prostanoid 2 (EP2) receptor pathways may be a way to reduce the incidence of adhesion formation because prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is shown to inhibit TGF-?
Positive_regulation (augmenting) of prostanoid 2 associated with adhesions
14) Confidence 0.27 Published 2005 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC548295 Disease Relevance 1.10 Pain Relevance 0.05
For instance, augmenting E prostanoid 2 (EP2) receptor pathways may be a way to reduce the incidence of adhesion formation because prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is shown to inhibit TGF-?
Positive_regulation (augmenting) of EP2 associated with adhesions
15) Confidence 0.27 Published 2005 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC548295 Disease Relevance 1.10 Pain Relevance 0.05
Increasing the extracellular PGE2 through prostaglandin secretion in ABC efflux transporters, MRP4 and MOAT, is probably augmented by elevated activity in the MRP4 transporter as found in CRC cells, Figure 1[38].
Positive_regulation (Increasing) of PGE2 associated with colorectal cancer
16) Confidence 0.27 Published 2010 Journal BMC Gastroenterol Section Body Doc Link PMC2824707 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.06
PGE2 has been reported to be responsible for both catabolic and anabolic changes in articular cartilage [6,7].
Positive_regulation (responsible) of PGE2 in articular cartilage
17) Confidence 0.26 Published 2007 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2206385 Disease Relevance 0.91 Pain Relevance 0.28
However, PGE2, generated by chondrocytes, has been shown to be physiologically important for maintaining cartilage homeostasis [6].
Positive_regulation (generated) of PGE2 in cartilage
18) Confidence 0.26 Published 2007 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2206385 Disease Relevance 0.90 Pain Relevance 0.56
Our own preliminary data on receptor involvement suggest a role of EP3 receptor, which expression is significantly upregulated on the addition of 10 pg/ml PGE2 to OA articular cartilage explants (E.V.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of PGE2 in articular cartilage associated with osteoarthritis
19) Confidence 0.26 Published 2007 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2206385 Disease Relevance 0.58 Pain Relevance 0.26
The findings have implications for the use of NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors whose actions can increase the monocyte TXA2/PGE2 ratio.
Positive_regulation (increase) of PGE2 in PGE2 associated with cinod and cox-2 inhibitor
20) Confidence 0.25 Published 2001 Journal Inflamm. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 11409487 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.26

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