INT177341

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Context Info
Confidence 0.03
First Reported 2004
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 21
Total Number 29
Disease Relevance 12.48
Pain Relevance 1.25

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Anatomy Link Frequency
blood 1
Appendix 1
body 1
HMHB1 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
antidepressant 75 98.20 Very High Very High Very High
depression 159 97.76 Very High Very High Very High
fluoxetine 3 94.44 High High
behavioral therapy 3 81.16 Quite High
Onset of action 16 40.00 Quite Low
Pain 88 18.24 Low Low
cva 18 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
tolerance 12 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
fibrosis 9 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
pruritus 9 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Hypoglycemia 944 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 1950 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Depression 201 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Body Weight 44 98.64 Very High Very High Very High
Ocular Toxicity (including Many Sub-types) 95 97.48 Very High Very High Very High
Myocardial Infarction 145 95.60 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetic Foot Ulcer 5 92.96 High High
Hyperinsulinism 9 89.64 High High
Disease 212 86.88 High High
Asthma 72 84.96 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Studies with antidepressants have shown variable effects on metabolic control.13,14,24–26 In a study with sertraline, HbA1c levels were reduced during treatment but did not differ between the sertraline and placebo groups.13 In another study no significant reduction in HbA1c levels was observed in patients treated with fluoxetine or paroxetine although depressive symptoms were significantly improved.14,24 Similarly, treatment with escitalopram resulted in a significant reduction of depression ratings but only a modest, non-significant reduction in fBG levels and HbA1c levels.25 With bupropion, BMI and HbA1c levels decreased significantly over an acute treatment phase with the reduction of depression severity associated with lower HbA1c levels.26
Negative_regulation (reduced) of HbA1c associated with antidepressant, depression and fluoxetine
1) Confidence 0.03 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695229 Disease Relevance 1.17 Pain Relevance 0.51
These results extend earlier reports that improvement of depressive symptoms can lead to sustained improvement in HbA1c levels.23–26 Significant reductions of serum triglyceride levels and body weight were also seen in antidepressant-responder patients.
Negative_regulation (reductions) of HbA1c in body associated with antidepressant, body weight and depression
2) Confidence 0.03 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695229 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.24
Studies with antidepressants have shown variable effects on metabolic control.13,14,24–26 In a study with sertraline, HbA1c levels were reduced during treatment but did not differ between the sertraline and placebo groups.13 In another study no significant reduction in HbA1c levels was observed in patients treated with fluoxetine or paroxetine although depressive symptoms were significantly improved.14,24 Similarly, treatment with escitalopram resulted in a significant reduction of depression ratings but only a modest, non-significant reduction in fBG levels and HbA1c levels.25 With bupropion, BMI and HbA1c levels decreased significantly over an acute treatment phase with the reduction of depression severity associated with lower HbA1c levels.26
Negative_regulation (decreased) of HbA1c associated with antidepressant, depression and fluoxetine
3) Confidence 0.03 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695229 Disease Relevance 1.16 Pain Relevance 0.50
In Phase III randomized controlled trials of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, Exubera achieved similar reductions in HbA1c as subcutaneous insulin.
Negative_regulation (reductions) of HbA1c associated with diabetes mellitus
4) Confidence 0.02 Published 2007 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1994047 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0
Projections suggested that for each 1% reduction in mean HbA1c there would be a corresponding 37% reduction in the risk of microvascular complications, a 14% lower rate of myocardial infarction, and 21% fewer deaths related to diabetes (Stratton et al 2000) (Figure 2).
Negative_regulation (reduction) of HbA1c associated with diabetes mellitus and myocardial infarction
5) Confidence 0.02 Published 2007 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1994047 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0
For each 10% decrease in HbA1c, such as from 8.0% to 7.2%, there was a 39% decrease in risk over the range of HbA1c values.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of HbA1c
6) Confidence 0.02 Published 2007 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1994047 Disease Relevance 0.86 Pain Relevance 0
Compared with metformin plus a sulfonylurea, inhaled insulin in combination with a sulfonylurea produced a significantly greater reduction in HbA1c in patients with a baseline HbA1c value >9.5%.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of HbA1c
7) Confidence 0.02 Published 2007 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1994047 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 0
These results indicated that the intervention, which focused on blood glucose control and insulin adjustment, was clinically useful in reducing HbA1c.
Negative_regulation (reducing) of HbA1c in blood
8) Confidence 0.01 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Medical Internet Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2956232 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0
As indicated in Multimedia Appendix 2, a significant decrease in HbA1c was observed in 10 of these studies for patients in the home telemonitoring groups [14-23].
Negative_regulation (decrease) of HbA1c in Appendix
9) Confidence 0.01 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Medical Internet Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2956232 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0
HbA1c and the incidence of severe hypoglycemia were significantly reduced compared with previous treatment (premeal lispro plus twice-daily ultralente) and the best results were achieved in children with normal bodyweight.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of HbA1c associated with hypoglycemia
10) Confidence 0.01 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012430 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0
The authors concluded that biphasic insulin lispro 25/75 was a more effective treatment option because it resulted in a greater decrease in HbA1c levels, a higher number of HbA1c ?
Negative_regulation (decrease) of HbA1c
11) Confidence 0.01 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012430 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0
The authors concluded that biphasic insulin lispro 25/75 was a more effective treatment option because it resulted in a greater decrease in HbA1c levels, a higher number of HbA1c ?
Negative_regulation (decrease) of HbA1c
12) Confidence 0.01 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012430 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0
For example, Janka et al. (2005) found that once-daily (morning) insulin glargine in combination with glimepiride and metformin reduced FBG and HbA1c levels, and was associated with significantly lower incidence of hypoglycemia compared with human insulin (30% regular, 70% NPH) alone.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of HbA1c associated with hypoglycemia
13) Confidence 0.01 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012430 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0
The majority of patients had type 1 diabetes and HbA1c was significantly decreased from a baseline of 9.5% to 8.6% (P<0.001) following 9 months’ treatment with insulin glargine.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of HbA1c associated with diabetes mellitus
14) Confidence 0.01 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012430 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0
Colino et al. (2005) also documented a significant reduction in HbA1c levels following 6 months’ therapy in 80 patients aged 2 to 19 years with type 1 diabetes treated with insulin glargine plus short-acting (regular human) insulin or a rapid-acting analog to provide mealtime cover.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of HbA1c associated with diabetes mellitus
15) Confidence 0.01 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012430 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0
Rosenstock and colleagues (2006) reported greater reductions in HbA1c levels in patients whose baseline value was ?
Negative_regulation (reductions) of HbA1c
16) Confidence 0.01 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012430 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0
The health-related quality of life (HRQL)-WED questionnaire was undertaken at 6–8 months after switching to insulin glargine, at which stage there was a perceived lower risk of hypoglycemia and less problems in daily life with insulin glargine and, importantly, HbA1c was reduced by 0.7% (P<0.0001 vs baseline).
Negative_regulation (reduced) of HbA1c associated with hypoglycemia and diabetes mellitus
17) Confidence 0.01 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012430 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0
In a study of shorter duration (16 weeks), Doyle and colleagues (2004) reported a significantly (P<0.05) greater reduction in HbA1c levels following continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (8.1% to 7.2%) compared with a multiple daily injection regimen including insulin glargine (8.2% to 8.1%) in 32 young patients (8–21 years) with type 1 diabetes treated for 16 weeks.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of HbA1c associated with diabetes mellitus
18) Confidence 0.01 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012430 Disease Relevance 0.48 Pain Relevance 0
Similarly, Stone et al [75] found that active medication management by a nurse practitioner along with home telemonitoring demonstrated reductions in HbA1c after 3 and 6 months.
Negative_regulation (reductions) of HbA1c
19) Confidence 0.01 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Medical Internet Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2956232 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0
Modern basal insulin analogues have become a particularly popular choice in this situation as clinical trials using simple once daily (qd) dosing schedules have shown them to be capable of lowering HbA1c (by around 1.6%) with better tolerability compared with traditional basal insulins (4,5).
Negative_regulation (lowering) of HbA1c
20) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Clinical Practice Section Body Doc Link PMC2438599 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0

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