INT18025

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Context Info
Confidence 0.45
First Reported 1986
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 32
Total Number 36
Disease Relevance 30.72
Pain Relevance 7.93

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Anatomy Link Frequency
connective tissue 8
heart 3
ductus arteriosus 2
brain 2
plasma 1
Pah (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
cva 127 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 30 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 28 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
opiate 8 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
mu opioid receptor 8 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 10 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Somatosensory cortex 1 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Analgesic 18 99.42 Very High Very High Very High
Kappa opioid receptor 2 98.68 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 13 98.32 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pulmonary Hypertension 3666 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Or Hiv Infection 143 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Infection 101 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cv General 3 Under Development 73 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Toxicity 18 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 376 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Systemic Sclerosis 245 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoxia 107 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Eisenmenger Complex 91 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Coronary Heart Disease 82 99.76 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Their conclusions are based primarily on a large, multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of sildenafil versus placebo in 278 patients with PAH of mixed etiology, including idiopathic PAH (n=175), PAH associated with connective tissue diseases (n=84), and surgically corrected left-to-right shunts (n=18) (Galie et al. 2005b).
PAH Binding (associated) of in connective tissue associated with pulmonary hypertension and disease
1) Confidence 0.45 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012445 Disease Relevance 0.68 Pain Relevance 0
PAH is associated with progressive right ventricular failure and high mortality risk.
PAH Binding (associated) of associated with pulmonary hypertension
2) Confidence 0.39 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012445 Disease Relevance 0.78 Pain Relevance 0
Their conclusions are based primarily on a large, multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of sildenafil versus placebo in 278 patients with PAH of mixed etiology, including idiopathic PAH (n=175), PAH associated with connective tissue diseases (n=84), and surgically corrected left-to-right shunts (n=18) (Galie et al. 2005b).
PAH Binding (associated) of in connective tissue associated with pulmonary hypertension and disease
3) Confidence 0.39 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012445 Disease Relevance 0.68 Pain Relevance 0
In addition, oxoglutarate analogue suppresses PAH activity and increases endogenous HIF-1?
PAH Binding (activity) of
4) Confidence 0.32 Published 2007 Journal The Open Biochemistry Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2570544 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.11
Bosentan in other forms of associated PAH
PAH Binding (associated) of associated with pulmonary hypertension
5) Confidence 0.30 Published 2007 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2350123 Disease Relevance 1.37 Pain Relevance 0
Mukhopadhyay and colleagues studied the acute and chronic effects of tadalafil at a dose of 1 mg/kg daily (maximum 40 mg daily) in 16 patients (mean age 25 years) with symptomatic PAH associated with Eisenmenger syndrome in an open-label, uncontrolled study design (Mukhopadhyay et al. 2006).
PAH Binding (associated) of associated with pulmonary hypertension and eisenmenger complex
6) Confidence 0.29 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012445 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0
However, it remains uncertain whether bone marrow-derived cells can also participate in vascular remodeling associated with PAH.
PAH Binding (associated) of in bone marrow associated with pulmonary hypertension
7) Confidence 0.28 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Section Body Doc Link PMC2843902 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0
Although prostacyclin is recognized as a therapeutic breakthrough for PAH, it needs continuous infusion because of its short half-life in plasma.
PAH Binding (breakthrough) of in plasma associated with pulmonary hypertension
8) Confidence 0.28 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Section Body Doc Link PMC2843902 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0.12
However, there is also evidence of the efficacy of bosentan in PAH associated with HIV infection and PAH associated with congenital heart disease as well as in the pediatric population (Table 4).
PAH Binding (associated) of in heart associated with pulmonary hypertension, acquired immune deficiency syndrome or hiv infection, coronary heart disease and infection
9) Confidence 0.26 Published 2007 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2350123 Disease Relevance 1.82 Pain Relevance 0
The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been associated with complications including interstitial and alveolar hemorrhage and secondary epithelial alterations.51 For this reason, since the establishment of inhaled NO therapy as a treatment for pediatric PAH, the use of ECMO has significantly decreased.52 Despite this, there are still some incidences in which ECMO therapy is necessary, such as those infants with severe respiratory or cardiac disease in addition to pulmonary arterial hypertension; one study of children with hypoxemic respiratory failure found that treatment with NO alone was successful in only 29% cases.53

Maintenance therapies

PAH Neg (NO) Binding (treatment) of in respiratory associated with pulmonary hypertension, heart disease, respiratory failure and cva
10) Confidence 0.26 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2697585 Disease Relevance 1.00 Pain Relevance 0.05
Patients with PAH have increased levels of circulating endothelin-1.22,23 As well as causing vasoconstriction, endothelin-1 leads to smooth muscle and fibroblast proliferation via endothelin A (ETA), and/or endothelin B (ETB) receptors.24 Serotonin levels are also raised in PAH, which stimulates mitogenesis of vascular cells, and increased expression of the serotonin transporter is found in hypertensive arteries.25 Patients with severe PAH have a relative deficiency of vasodilator pathways; they produce less endogenous prostacyclin, have reduced nitrogen oxide synthase (NOS) expression, and reduced vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the lungs.26,27

Prevention of pediatric pulmonary hypertension

PAH Binding (Patients) of in smooth muscle associated with pulmonary hypertension, hypertension, increased venous pressure under development and serotonin
11) Confidence 0.26 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2697585 Disease Relevance 0.84 Pain Relevance 0.16
Various experimental models have been proposed for induction of PAH in animals including: (1) monocrotaline- (MCT-) induced PAH with or without aortocaval shunt; (2) chronic hypoxia-induced PAH; (3) chronic embolism-induced PAH; (4) ligation of ductus arteriosus; (5) overcirculation-induced PH; (6) genetically modified animal models, such as mice lacking the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) gene.
PAH Binding (ligation) of in ductus arteriosus associated with pulmonary hypertension, hypoxia and cva
12) Confidence 0.23 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Section Body Doc Link PMC2843902 Disease Relevance 1.88 Pain Relevance 0.11
Various experimental models have been proposed for induction of PAH in animals including: (1) monocrotaline- (MCT-) induced PAH with or without aortocaval shunt; (2) chronic hypoxia-induced PAH; (3) chronic embolism-induced PAH; (4) ligation of ductus arteriosus; (5) overcirculation-induced PH; (6) genetically modified animal models, such as mice lacking the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) gene.
PAH Binding (ligation) of in ductus arteriosus associated with pulmonary hypertension, hypoxia and cva
13) Confidence 0.23 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Section Body Doc Link PMC2843902 Disease Relevance 1.85 Pain Relevance 0.11
PAH can also be seen in association with a variety of other conditions as described in Group 1 of the World Health Organization Venice classification (Table 1).
PAH Binding (association) of associated with pulmonary hypertension
14) Confidence 0.23 Published 2007 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2350123 Disease Relevance 1.53 Pain Relevance 0
This article reviews the evidence for the use of bosentan in PAH including it’s efficacy in various types of PAH, its potential toxicity, and associated drug interactions.


PAH Binding (interactions) of associated with toxicity and pulmonary hypertension
15) Confidence 0.22 Published 2007 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2350123 Disease Relevance 1.50 Pain Relevance 0.15
Bosentan in connective tissue disease associated PAH
PAH Binding (associated) of in connective tissue associated with pulmonary hypertension and disease
16) Confidence 0.20 Published 2007 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2350123 Disease Relevance 1.39 Pain Relevance 0.03
In this double blind study, 213 patients with either idiopathic PAH or PAH associated with connective tissue disease received either placebo or bosentan with an initial dose of 62.5 mg twice daily for 4-weeks followed by either of 2 doses of bosentan (125 or 250 mg twice daily) for a minimum of 12-weeks.
PAH Binding (associated) of in connective tissue associated with pulmonary hypertension and disease
17) Confidence 0.20 Published 2007 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2350123 Disease Relevance 0.68 Pain Relevance 0.04
Most of the clinical studies of bosentan in PAH have concentrated on patients with idiopathic and familial PAH as well as those with PAH in association with connective tissue disease especially scleroderma.
PAH Binding (association) of in connective tissue associated with pulmonary hypertension, systemic sclerosis and disease
18) Confidence 0.20 Published 2007 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2350123 Disease Relevance 1.57 Pain Relevance 0
In this double blind study, 213 patients with either idiopathic PAH or PAH associated with connective tissue disease received either placebo or bosentan with an initial dose of 62.5 mg twice daily for 4-weeks followed by either of 2 doses of bosentan (125 or 250 mg twice daily) for a minimum of 12-weeks.
PAH Binding (associated) of in connective tissue associated with pulmonary hypertension and disease
19) Confidence 0.20 Published 2007 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2350123 Disease Relevance 0.68 Pain Relevance 0.04
Most of the clinical studies of bosentan in PAH have concentrated on patients with idiopathic and familial PAH as well as those with PAH in association with connective tissue disease especially scleroderma.
PAH Binding (association) of in connective tissue associated with pulmonary hypertension, systemic sclerosis and disease
20) Confidence 0.20 Published 2007 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2350123 Disease Relevance 1.58 Pain Relevance 0

General Comments

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