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Context Info
Confidence 0.74
First Reported 1990
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 31
Total Number 32
Disease Relevance 15.53
Pain Relevance 5.56

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

peptidase activity (F2) extracellular space (F2) extracellular region (F2)
Anatomy Link Frequency
platelets 5
neurons 5
muscle 2
covering 1
bone marrow 1
F2 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Neuropeptide 72 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 120 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
qutenza 84 98.82 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 53 98.76 Very High Very High Very High
bradykinin 24 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 21 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
unmyelinated 18 96.60 Very High Very High Very High
tetrodotoxin 8 96.16 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 278 95.64 Very High Very High Very High
Analgesic 14 95.36 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Thrombosis 229 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 127 98.92 Very High Very High Very High
Hemolytic Anemia 11 97.72 Very High Very High Very High
Cystitis 26 97.16 Very High Very High Very High
Fever 3 97.08 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 56 96.88 Very High Very High Very High
Hepatic Encephalopathy 46 96.70 Very High Very High Very High
Bladder Cancer 6 96.64 Very High Very High Very High
Cirrhosis 69 96.20 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 319 95.64 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The application of ACh to electrically blocked muscle cultures resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in thrombin activity released into the medium and a 2-fold increase in prothrombin gene expression.
Gene_expression (expression) of prothrombin in muscle
1) Confidence 0.74 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9125468 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.39
We present a series of experiments examining whether prothrombin and/or PN1 gene expression, as well as thrombin activity, are regulated in muscle cultures by acetylcholine (ACh) receptor activation.
Gene_expression (expression) of prothrombin in muscle
2) Confidence 0.74 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9125468 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.20
The extract did not produce any significant changes in prothrombin time and fibrinogen level.
Neg (not) Gene_expression (produce) of prothrombin
3) Confidence 0.54 Published 1990 Journal J Ethnopharmacol Section Abstract Doc Link 2335958 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.31
The F1 transgene carriers were crossed with F1 wild type mice to produce F2 animals and some F2 mice were crossed together to produce F3 mice.
Gene_expression (produce) of F2
4) Confidence 0.31 Published 2006 Journal J Carcinog Section Body Doc Link PMC1559682 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0.10
We crossed one male Ela-myc mouse (C57BL/6 × SJL background) with a female FVB mouse and then crossed F1 pups together to produce F2 transgene carriers.
Gene_expression (produce) of F2
5) Confidence 0.31 Published 2006 Journal J Carcinog Section Body Doc Link PMC1559682 Disease Relevance 0.64 Pain Relevance 0
Some F2 animals were also crossed together to produce F3 mice.
Gene_expression (produce) of F2
6) Confidence 0.27 Published 2006 Journal J Carcinog Section Body Doc Link PMC1559682 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0
Recently this group had expanded their study and has shown that in the bone marrow OPN exists predominantly in its thrombin-cleaved forms.
Gene_expression (exists) of thrombin in bone marrow
7) Confidence 0.26 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2791444 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.03
Thrombin cleaved form of Osteopontin (tcOPN) was produced as previously described[37], administration of tcOPN was twice daily by orbital vein injection through all transplantation period.


Gene_expression (produced) of Thrombin in vein
8) Confidence 0.26 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2791444 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.18
Characteristics of neurons expressing functional thrombin receptors
Gene_expression (expressing) of thrombin in neurons
9) Confidence 0.24 Published 2010 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2956715 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.09
In summary, our data show that functional receptors for thrombin are expressed broadly across all neuronal size classes, in neurons subtending both myelinated and unmyelinated fibres.
Gene_expression (expressed) of thrombin in neurons associated with unmyelinated
10) Confidence 0.24 Published 2010 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2956715 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0.88
The therapeutic benefit of acidifying the gut lumen with synbiotics in cirrhotic patients with minimal HE was demonstrated by Liu et al. [123] who showed that synbiotic/probiotic supplementation ameliorates hepatic function as reflected by reduced bilirubin and albumin levels and prothrombin times [123].
Gene_expression (levels) of prothrombin in lumen associated with cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy
11) Confidence 0.24 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism Section Body Doc Link PMC3017957 Disease Relevance 0.75 Pain Relevance 0.04
Formation of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex leads to the generation of thrombin that can activate cells through cleavage of PAR-1.
Gene_expression (generation) of thrombin in cleavage
12) Confidence 0.24 Published 2007 Journal Hepatology Section Abstract Doc Link 17654741 Disease Relevance 0.46 Pain Relevance 0.07
In this paper we investigate the expression and function of the PAR1, 3 and 4 thrombin-activated receptors in sensory neurones.
Spec (investigate) Gene_expression (expression) of thrombin
13) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal Mol Pain Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2956715 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0.19
A distinct population of thrombin-responsive neurons, mainly small neurons, co-expressed the neuropeptides CGRP and/or substance P (bars 3 and 4 in Fig. 6B).
Gene_expression (expressed) of thrombin in neurons associated with neuropeptide, substance p and calcitonin gene-related peptide
14) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2956715 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.53
The membrane current carried by TRPV1 in response to either heat or capsaicin was approximately doubled in responsive neurons following exposure to thrombin or PAR1 and PAR4 activator peptides (Fig. 4).
Gene_expression (exposure) of thrombin in neurons associated with qutenza
15) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2956715 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.67
Most of the remainder of the thrombin-responsive neurons (c. one third of the total) were small and expressed functional TRPV1, TRPA1 and prokineticin and bradykinin B2 receptors (Fig. 2) and contained neuropeptides (Fig. 6B), all of which are characteristic of the small and medium-sized nociceptive neuronal population.
Gene_expression (expressed) of thrombin in neurons associated with nociception, neuropeptide and bradykinin
16) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2956715 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.49
Setty et al. [19] has reported increased tissue factor expression and thrombin generation induced by free heme.
Gene_expression (expression) of thrombin
17) Confidence 0.20 Published 2010 Journal F1000 Med Rep Section Body Doc Link PMC2948405 Disease Relevance 2.38 Pain Relevance 0
In addition to tryptase, other serine proteases, such as thrombin and trypsin, are produced during tissue damage and make important contributions to tissue responses to injury, repair, cell survival, inflammation [10-13], and pain [14-18].
Gene_expression (produced) of thrombin associated with pain, inflammation and injury
18) Confidence 0.20 Published 2007 Journal BMC Immunol Section Body Doc Link PMC2000913 Disease Relevance 1.45 Pain Relevance 0.44
We also analyzed mouse serum prepared as previously described[12], to simulate situations in which in vivo thrombin generation results in coagulation.
Gene_expression (generation) of thrombin
19) Confidence 0.15 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2719874 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
However, once cleaved, (pro)thrombin was observed on fibrin fibers, covering the whole thrombus.
Gene_expression (observed) of thrombin in covering associated with thrombosis
20) Confidence 0.15 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2861630 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0

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