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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1989
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 22
Total Number 25
Disease Relevance 7.39
Pain Relevance 9.02

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

mitochondrion (Gad1) lyase activity (Gad1) intracellular (Gad1)
cytoplasm (Gad1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
prefrontal 6
neurons 6
striatum 4
globus pallidus 4
putamen 3
Gad1 (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dopamine 104 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
projection neuron 27 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 27 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 25 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
dopamine receptor 7 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 11 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
analgesia 15 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
amygdala 10 99.36 Very High Very High Very High
GABAergic 33 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal nerve ligature 1 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dyskinesias 193 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 92 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 8 98.20 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 44 98.12 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 167 97.96 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropathic Pain 26 97.88 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 4 97.72 Very High Very High Very High
Frailty 1 95.60 Very High Very High Very High
Cold Sores 2 92.00 High High
Herpes Simplex Virus 1 91.80 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Striatal glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) and enkephalin expressions were increased in the striatum ipsilateral to the lesion.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expressions) of GAD67 in striatum associated with enkephalin
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 1999 Journal Neuroreport Section Abstract Doc Link 10549811 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.28
The results show that L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia is associated with overexpression of PDyn and GAD67 mRNA in the striatal projection neurons, and GAD67 mRNA levels in the globus pallidus.
Positive_regulation (overexpression) of Gene_expression (overexpression) of GAD67 mRNA in globus pallidus associated with projection neuron and dyskinesias
2) Confidence 0.69 Published 1998 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9767399 Disease Relevance 0.51 Pain Relevance 0.12
The 33G10.17 cells transfected with the GAD67 gene expressed GAD67 protein and synthesized low levels of GABA at permissive temperature (33 degrees C), when the cells were proliferating, and increased GAD67 and GABA during differentiation at nonpermissive temperature (39 degrees C) in vitro, because GAD67 protein expression was upregulated with differentiation.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of Gene_expression (expression) of GAD67 associated with gaba
3) Confidence 0.65 Published 1999 Journal Cell Transplant Section Abstract Doc Link 10338278 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 1.11
Continuous or intermittent levodopa administration is equally effective at reversing the lesion-induced increase in GAD67 mRNA expression in the ENT nucleus (Nielsen and Soghomonian, 2004).
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (expression) of GAD67 mRNA in nucleus
4) Confidence 0.58 Published 2010 Journal Frontiers in Neuroanatomy Section Body Doc Link PMC2947938 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0
Striatal glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) and enkephalin expressions were increased in the striatum ipsilateral to the lesion.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expressions) of glutamic acid decarboxylase in striatum associated with enkephalin
5) Confidence 0.50 Published 1999 Journal Neuroreport Section Abstract Doc Link 10549811 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.28
The results show that L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia is associated with overexpression of PDyn and GAD67 mRNA in the striatal projection neurons, and GAD67 mRNA levels in the globus pallidus.
Positive_regulation (overexpression) of Gene_expression (overexpression) of GAD67 mRNA in globus pallidus associated with projection neuron and dyskinesias
6) Confidence 0.50 Published 1998 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9767399 Disease Relevance 0.51 Pain Relevance 0.12
L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the rat is associated with striatal overexpression of prodynorphin- and glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA.
Positive_regulation (overexpression) of Gene_expression (overexpression) of glutamic acid decarboxylase associated with enkephalin and dyskinesias
7) Confidence 0.50 Published 1998 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Title Doc Link 9767399 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.21
Long-term increase in GAD67 mRNA expression in the central amygdala of rats sensitized by drugs and stress.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (expression) of GAD67 in amygdala associated with stress and amygdala
8) Confidence 0.50 Published 2008 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Title Doc Link 18312583 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 0.49
The present study demonstrates that bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of dopamine neurons in neonate rats are able to induce a long-term and widespread alteration in the expression of genes encoding for GAD67, preproenkephalin and dopamine D2 receptor in the striatum.
Positive_regulation (induce) of Gene_expression (expression) of GAD67 in dopamine neurons associated with dopamine
9) Confidence 0.50 Published 1993 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 7902185 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.50
In view of previous results after 6-hydroxydopamine lesions in adults, it appears that the behavioral differences observed after adult or neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions are accompanied by a similar alteration of GAD67, preproenkephalin and dopamine D2 receptor gene expression in presumed striatal projection neurons.
Positive_regulation (alteration) of Gene_expression (expression) of GAD67 in projection neurons associated with dopamine and projection neuron
10) Confidence 0.50 Published 1993 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 7902185 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.43
We used in situ hybridization histochemistry to assess expression of dopamine receptors (D1R, D2R and D3R), neurotensin, proenkephalin and glutamate decarboxylase-67 (GAD67) in the prefrontal cortex, striatum, and/or nucleus accumbens in adult rats with neonatal ventral hippocampal (VH) lesions and in control animals after acute and chronic treatment with antipsychotic drugs clozapine and haloperidol.
Positive_regulation (assess) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin and glutamate decarboxylase-67 in prefrontal associated with nucleus accumbens, glutamate and dopamine receptor
11) Confidence 0.49 Published 2003 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 12887421 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.22
We used in situ hybridization histochemistry to assess expression of dopamine receptors (D1R, D2R and D3R), neurotensin, proenkephalin and glutamate decarboxylase-67 (GAD67) in the prefrontal cortex, striatum, and/or nucleus accumbens in adult rats with neonatal ventral hippocampal (VH) lesions and in control animals after acute and chronic treatment with antipsychotic drugs clozapine and haloperidol.
Positive_regulation (assess) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin and glutamate decarboxylase-67 in prefrontal associated with nucleus accumbens, glutamate and dopamine receptor
12) Confidence 0.49 Published 2003 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 12887421 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.22
We used in situ hybridization histochemistry to assess expression of dopamine receptors (D1R, D2R and D3R), neurotensin, proenkephalin and glutamate decarboxylase-67 (GAD67) in the prefrontal cortex, striatum, and/or nucleus accumbens in adult rats with neonatal ventral hippocampal (VH) lesions and in control animals after acute and chronic treatment with antipsychotic drugs clozapine and haloperidol.
Positive_regulation (assess) of Gene_expression (expression) of GAD67 in prefrontal associated with nucleus accumbens, glutamate and dopamine receptor
13) Confidence 0.49 Published 2003 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 12887421 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.22
Mice used in this study were homozygous for a transgene that has enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression driven by the mouse gad1 gene promoter.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Gene_expression (expression) of gad1
14) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2879240 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.43
Thus, supranigral infusions of BDNF or NT-4/5 increase tachykinin mRNA and protein levels within striatonigral neurons and increase the size and GAD67 mRNA expression levels of nigral GABAergic neurons.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (expression) of GAD67 in GABAergic neurons associated with gabaergic
15) Confidence 0.49 Published 1996 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 8921261 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.62
The neuronal cell line, RN33B, derived from E13 brain stem raphe and immortalized with the SV40 temperature-sensitive allele of large T antigen (tsTag), was transfected with rat GAD67 cDNA (glutamate decarboxylase, the synthetic enzyme for GABA), and the GABAergic cell line, 33G10.17, was isolated.
Positive_regulation (transfected) of Gene_expression (transfected) of GAD67 in brain stem associated with gaba, glutamate, gabaergic and raphe
16) Confidence 0.47 Published 1999 Journal Cell Transplant Section Abstract Doc Link 10338278 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.60
Chronic-intermittent L-dopa (6 mg/kg) treatment increased the striatal levels of GAD67, dynorphin, and enkephalin mRNA in the lesioned side as compared to the vehicle treatment.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (levels) of GAD67 associated with dynorphin and enkephalin
17) Confidence 0.45 Published 2002 Journal Synapse Section Abstract Doc Link 11954048 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.84
STN HFS counteracted the dopamine lesion-induced increase in GAD67 mRNA expression in the output structures of the basal ganglia, as shown previously after STN lesion, providing cellular support for the similar antiparkinsonian benefits produced by the two surgical procedures.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (expression) of GAD67 mRNA in STN associated with dopamine
18) Confidence 0.43 Published 2004 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 15610165 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.27
Transducing SGCs with glutamic acid decarboxylase can produce analgesia in models of trigeminal pain.
Positive_regulation (Transducing) of Gene_expression (Transducing) of glutamic acid decarboxylase in SGCs associated with pain and analgesia
19) Confidence 0.42 Published 2010 Journal Neuron Glia Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 20566001 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.49
Levodopa treatment significantly normalizes GAD67 mRNA expression in the putamen and caudate nucleus to levels similar to those found in control monkeys (Levy et al., 1995).
Positive_regulation (normalizes) of Gene_expression (expression) of GAD67 mRNA in putamen
20) Confidence 0.42 Published 2010 Journal Frontiers in Neuroanatomy Section Body Doc Link PMC2947938 Disease Relevance 0.59 Pain Relevance 0.07

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