INT4740

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Context Info
Confidence 0.78
First Reported 1981
Last Reported 2010
Negated 7
Speculated 8
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 298
Total Number 310
Disease Relevance 61.27
Pain Relevance 154.03

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (Th) mitochondrion (Th) nucleus (Th)
response to stress (Th) cytoplasm (Th)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neurons 26
brain 20
chromaffin cells 10
PVN 10
striatum 9
Th (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dopamine 1088 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 380 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Substantia nigra 349 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Catecholamine 277 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 179 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 168 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 120 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Serotonin 94 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 87 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neurotransmitter 82 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 13 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pheochromocytoma 7 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 34 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Nervous System Injury 67 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 72 99.86 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 136 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Aids-related Complex 118 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Opiate Addiction 13 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Congenital Anomalies 57 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
Appetite Loss 46 99.60 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Expression of protein gene product 9.5, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin in the pineal gland of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
Gene_expression (Expression) of tyrosine hydroxylase in pineal gland associated with diabetes mellitus and serotonin
1) Confidence 0.78 Published 2008 Journal Neurosci. Res. Section Title Doc Link 18155792 Disease Relevance 0.61 Pain Relevance 0.14
Moreover, neurons maintained their characteristic neurochemical identity, at least to the extent that sympathetic neurons continued to express tyrosine hydroxylase and dorsal root ganglion neurons did not.
Gene_expression (express) of tyrosine hydroxylase in neurons associated with ganglion cysts and root ganglion neuron
2) Confidence 0.78 Published 1997 Journal J. Neurocytol. Section Abstract Doc Link 9426170 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.12
In toto these observations suggest that transsynaptic nerve impulse activity and sympathetic neuron membrane depolarization decrease SS synthesis but increase TH synthesis at the mRNA level.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of TH in nerve
3) Confidence 0.78 Published 1989 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2564623 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.14
Agmatine inhibited morphine-induced changes in dynorphin, but not in tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression.
Gene_expression (expression) of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA associated with dynorphin and morphine
4) Confidence 0.78 Published 2007 Journal Eur Neuropsychopharmacol Section Abstract Doc Link 17604969 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.65
In addition, repeated morphine also increased the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the VTA after 4 days of morphine pretreatment, while decreasing the expression of dynorphin mRNA at 3 days after withdrawal.
Gene_expression (expression) of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA associated with dynorphin, withdrawal and morphine
5) Confidence 0.78 Published 2007 Journal Eur Neuropsychopharmacol Section Abstract Doc Link 17604969 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.67
Nicotinic induction of preproenkephalin and tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in butyrate-differentiated rat PC12 cells: a model for adaptation to gut-derived environmental signals.
Gene_expression (expression) of tyrosine hydroxylase in gut
6) Confidence 0.78 Published 2007 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 17174279 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.20
When HA-1004 (40 nmol/day), inhibitor of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) was infused, concomitantly with morphine, it diminished the increase in noradrenaline (NA) turnover, total TH expression (95.76 +/- 4.1 %, P < 0.01) and TH phosphorylation at Ser40 (85.5 +/- 11%, P < 0.01) in morphine-withdrawn rats.
Gene_expression (expression) of TH associated with noradrenaline and morphine
7) Confidence 0.78 Published 2009 Journal Basic Res. Cardiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19104749 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 1.22
The present findings demonstrate that the enhancement of total TH expression and the increase of the phosphorylation state of TH during morphine withdrawal are dependent on PKA and ERK and suggest that these transduction pathways might contribute to the activation of the cardiac catecholaminergic neurons in response to morphine- withdrawal.
Gene_expression (expression) of TH in neurons associated with withdrawal and morphine
8) Confidence 0.78 Published 2009 Journal Basic Res. Cardiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19104749 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.02
The differences in expression of TH mRNA and PPEnk mRNA in the adrenal medulla in situ, in explants in culture and in transplants in the spinal subarachnoid space, indicate that the mechanisms regulating the expression of neurohumoral factors depend upon environmental factors extrinsic to the medullary cells themselves.
Gene_expression (expression) of TH mRNA in spinal associated with medulla
9) Confidence 0.77 Published 2000 Journal Exp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 10683300 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.51
Comparison of tyrosine hydroxylase and preproenkephalin expression in rat adrenal medullary explants in vitro and transplanted into subarachnoid space.
Gene_expression (expression) of tyrosine hydroxylase associated with enkephalin
10) Confidence 0.77 Published 2000 Journal Exp. Neurol. Section Title Doc Link 10683300 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.53
These results demonstrate that a series of ECS induces an initial increase of the activity of mesoamygdaloid catecholaminergic neurons followed by a sustained decrease through alterations of TH gene expression which could mediate the clinical effect of the treatment.
Gene_expression (expression) of TH gene in neurons associated with shock
11) Confidence 0.77 Published 1990 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 1968090 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.65
TH immunoreactivity was increased in the NTS/VLM after induction of morphine withdrawal, whereas there was a decrease in TH levels in the PVN.
Gene_expression (levels) of TH in VLM associated with toxocariasis, withdrawal and morphine
12) Confidence 0.77 Published 2005 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 16190878 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 1.61
Role of PKC-alpha,gamma isoforms in regulation of c-Fos and TH expression after naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal in the hypothalamic PVN and medulla oblongata catecholaminergic cell groups.
Gene_expression (expression) of TH in medulla oblongata associated with medulla, narcan, withdrawal and morphine
13) Confidence 0.77 Published 2005 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Title Doc Link 16190878 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 1.13
In the carotid body, nicotine increased TH mRNA expression in animals at 0 and 3 postnatal days (both, P < 0.05 vs. control) without affecting TH mRNA levels at 6 and 15 days.
Gene_expression (expression) of TH mRNA in carotid body associated with nicotine
14) Confidence 0.77 Published 2001 Journal J. Appl. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11641357 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0.62
In the petrosal ganglion, nicotine increased the number of ganglion cells expressing TH mRNA in animals at 3 days (P < 0.01 vs. control).
Gene_expression (expressing) of TH mRNA in ganglion cells associated with ganglion cysts and nicotine
15) Confidence 0.77 Published 2001 Journal J. Appl. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11641357 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 0.67
These data indicate that the endogenous opioid peptides are an integral component for increasing PRL release in response to suckling and they act to decrease tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neuronal activity during lactation, in part, by suppressing TH gene expression.
Gene_expression (expression) of TH gene in neuronal associated with endogenous opioid
16) Confidence 0.77 Published 1998 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 9607794 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.17
Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase levels and activity and Fos expression during opioid withdrawal in the hypothalamic PVN and medulla oblongata catecholaminergic cell groups innervating the PVN.
Gene_expression (expression) of tyrosine hydroxylase in medulla oblongata associated with medulla, narcan, withdrawal and opioid
17) Confidence 0.77 Published 2003 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Title Doc Link 12534973 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 1.09
A monospecific antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), purified from a transplantable rat pheochromocytoma, was produced in rabbits.
Gene_expression (produced) of tyrosine hydroxylase associated with pheochromocytoma
18) Confidence 0.76 Published 1981 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 6112040 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.22
A monospecific antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), purified from a transplantable rat pheochromocytoma, was produced in rabbits.
Gene_expression (produced) of TH associated with pheochromocytoma
19) Confidence 0.76 Published 1981 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 6112040 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.22
Butyrate, a gut-derived environmental signal, regulates tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression via a novel promoter element.
Gene_expression (expression) of tyrosine hydroxylase in gut associated with enkephalin
20) Confidence 0.76 Published 2005 Journal Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 16165221 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.23

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