INT5099

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Context Info
Confidence 0.81
First Reported 1985
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 46
Total Number 51
Disease Relevance 10.66
Pain Relevance 18.93

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Gal) Golgi apparatus (Gal) response to stress (Gal)
cytoplasm (Gal)
Anatomy Link Frequency
dorsal horn 5
spinal cord 4
lactotrophs 3
neurons 3
IAST 3
Gal (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 105 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 102 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 82 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
gABA 80 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 69 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 68 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 53 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Serotonin 37 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dorsal horn 32 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 24 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Nervous System Injury 24 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetic Nephropathy 6 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Hypertension 16 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropathic Pain 30 96.84 Very High Very High Very High
Prolactinoma 28 95.24 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 27 94.32 High High
Sprains And Strains 28 93.04 High High
Galactorrhea 11 92.60 High High
Hyperalgesia 6 92.40 High High
Targeted Disruption 110 92.08 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
It is suggested that GAL, which is present in sensory fibers that innervate the skin, is released by the central terminals of cutaneous afferents that are much more sensitive to thermal than to mechanical stimuli.
Localization (released) of GAL in skin
1) Confidence 0.81 Published 1988 Journal Exp Brain Res Section Abstract Doc Link 2458280 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
Porcine galanin (0.3 microM) significantly inhibited histamine release induced by 25 mM K+ in slices from hypothalamus and hippocampus, but not from cerebral cortex and striatum, i.e., only in regions in which a colocalization of histamine and galanin has been described.
Localization (colocalization) of galanin in hippocampus associated with hippocampus and cerebral cortex
2) Confidence 0.78 Published 1991 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 1724798 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.30
The effect of a peripheral mononeuropathy on immunoreactive (ir)-galanin release in the spinal cord of the rat.
Localization (release) of galanin in spinal cord associated with pain, diabetic nephropathy and spinal cord
3) Confidence 0.78 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 9359612 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0.24
In the latter case, abnormal release of hypothalamic dopamine, GABA, or brain-gut peptides (such as cholecystokinin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, galanin, angiotensin, opioid peptide, gastrin, gastrin-releasing peptide, pancreatic polypeptide, and adrenocorticotropic hormone) results in some of the pathological changes that may lead to hyperprolactinemia and/or prolactinoma development.
Localization (release) of galanin in brain associated with galactorrhea, gaba, dopamine, prolactinoma, opioid and cholecystokinin
4) Confidence 0.78 Published 2000 Journal Biol Signals Recept Section Abstract Doc Link 10686432 Disease Relevance 1.26 Pain Relevance 0.25
Galanin in the superficial dorsal horn may be released both from primary afferents and local neurons to modulate sensory processing in many different ways, including interacting with enkephalin, neuropeptide Y, neurotensin and substance P released from the same and/or other local neurons.
Localization (released) of Galanin in neurons associated with neuropeptide, dorsal horn, enkephalin and substance p
5) Confidence 0.78 Published 1995 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 7538639 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.55
These results indicated that galanin can be co-stored with several other neuropeptides in large dense-core vesicles in primary afferent terminals and may presumably be released together with them in the superficial layer of the dorsal horn.
Localization (released) of galanin in dorsal horn associated with dorsal horn and neuropeptide
6) Confidence 0.78 Published 1993 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 7509467 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.62
In this study, the rat IAST was transfected with rat preprogalanin cDNA and the galanin-synthesizing and secreting cell line, IAST/GAL, was isolated.
Localization (secreting) of GAL in IAST
7) Confidence 0.78 Published 2010 Journal Eur J Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 20004601 Disease Relevance 1.00 Pain Relevance 0.88
Thus, release of galanin in the spinal cord of the rat is possible to measure with the microdialysis technique.
Localization (release) of galanin in spinal cord associated with spinal cord
8) Confidence 0.78 Published 2001 Journal Exp Brain Res Section Abstract Doc Link 11545474 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.40
Immunocytochemical studies of these regions localized galanin-like immunoreactivity to cell bodies in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus, to fibres in the pars nervosa and to numerous cell bodies and fibres in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.
Localization (localized) of galanin in pars nervosa associated with dorsal horn and spinal cord
9) Confidence 0.78 Published 1985 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 2417156 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.25
The results showed that IAST/GAL transfected with preprogalanin gene could express and secrete significantly higher level of GAL protein in vitro and in vivo as compared with control cells.
Localization (secrete) of GAL in IAST
10) Confidence 0.78 Published 2010 Journal Eur J Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 20004601 Disease Relevance 1.07 Pain Relevance 1.13
After axotomy, galaninergic neurons had a soma size-distribution profile similar to the capsaicin-sensitive neurons, but there was no colocalization of capsaicin sensitivity and galanin expression in individual neurons.
Localization (colocalization) of galanin in neurons associated with qutenza
11) Confidence 0.78 Published 2003 Journal Exp Brain Res Section Abstract Doc Link 12955388 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.87
The mechanism underlying the GH-releasing effect of galanin (GAL), a novel 29-amino acid peptide, was investigated in the neonatal rat.
Localization (releasing) of galanin
12) Confidence 0.73 Published 1988 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 2449342 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.25
The pattern of ir-galanin release in the spinal cord of rats with a peripheral mononeuropathy was studied.
Localization (release) of ir-galanin in spinal cord associated with diabetic nephropathy and spinal cord
13) Confidence 0.70 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9359612 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.13
On the side of the cord ipsilateral to the nerve injury enhanced ir-galanin release was found in the superficial dorsal horn.
Localization (release) of ir-galanin in dorsal horn associated with nervous system injury and dorsal horn
14) Confidence 0.70 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9359612 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.13
Using the antibody microprobe technique to study the localized sites of ir-galanin release in vivo, we found that high intensity electrical stimulation of the injured nerve resulted in a further increase in ir-galanin release in the superficial dorsal horn, with no significant persistence of ir-galanin after release.
Localization (release) of ir-galanin in dorsal horn associated with dorsal horn
15) Confidence 0.69 Published 1998 Journal Br J Anaesth Section Abstract Doc Link 9861137 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0.46
Using the antibody microprobe technique to study the localized sites of ir-galanin release in vivo, we found that high intensity electrical stimulation of the injured nerve resulted in a further increase in ir-galanin release in the superficial dorsal horn, with no significant persistence of ir-galanin after release.
Localization (release) of ir-galanin in dorsal horn associated with dorsal horn
16) Confidence 0.69 Published 1998 Journal Br J Anaesth Section Abstract Doc Link 9861137 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.43
Patterns of co-localization of immunoreactivity for dopamine beta-hydroxylase (the synthetic enzyme for noradrenaline) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (the synthetic enzyme for GABA) or each one of six neuropeptides (neuropeptide Y, substance P, met-enkephalin, galanin, dynorphin A and somatostatin) were investigated with dual-colour confocal laser scanning microscopy in axons of cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal segments of six adult rats.
Localization (co-localization) of galanin in thoracic associated with dopamine, somatostatin, enkephalin, gaba, dynorphin, noradrenaline, neuropeptide and substance p
17) Confidence 0.68 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9070645 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0.60
Both, galanin and neurotensin (10(-9)-10(-5)) stimulated basal LH secretion in a dose-response manner.
Localization (secretion) of galanin
18) Confidence 0.68 Published 1994 Journal Biol. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8640240 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.38
This confirmed the bioactivity of synthetic galanin, which reduces acetylcholine, but not opiate, release from the ileal myenteric plexus.
Localization (release) of galanin associated with opiate
19) Confidence 0.68 Published 1993 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 7694768 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.25
Several neurotransmitters, neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), galanin, enkephalin, calcitonin-gene related peptide (GGRP), substance P, as well as nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and the noradrenergic marker tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH) were localized by immunocytochemistry in the cervical esophagus of rat.
Localization (localized) of galanin in esophagus associated with neurotransmitter, neuropeptide, enkephalin and substance p
20) Confidence 0.68 Published 1995 Journal Dysphagia Section Abstract Doc Link 7542192 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.30

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