INT54368

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Context Info
Confidence 0.59
First Reported 1994
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 13
Total Number 14
Disease Relevance 3.81
Pain Relevance 8.13

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (VTA1) endosome (VTA1) cytoplasm (VTA1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
hypothalamus 2
NAc 1
medial 1
brain 1
insula 1
VTA1 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dopamine 160 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Ventral tegmentum 86 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nucleus accumbens 74 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nicotine 32 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
cocaine 13 98.40 Very High Very High Very High
opioid receptor 7 97.84 Very High Very High Very High
GABAergic 4 97.84 Very High Very High Very High
insula 6 97.76 Very High Very High Very High
opiate 31 97.48 Very High Very High Very High
Locus ceruleus 361 96.72 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Opiate Addiction 35 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Unconsciousness 112 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
Depression 271 91.84 High High
Myelodysplastic Syndromes 16 87.44 High High
Congenital Anomalies 47 84.56 Quite High
Alcohol Addiction 5 81.60 Quite High
Neurosis 8 80.48 Quite High
Sepsis 32 75.76 Quite High
Coma 9 75.68 Quite High
Syndrome 15 75.00 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Etiological considerations for increased FA in the VTA/SN
Positive_regulation (increased) of VTA/SN
1) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2993928 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0.04
There was significant increase in post-treatment levels of SBP, MAP, SVRI, VO2I, DO2I, and HVOS in both the groups [Table 4].
Positive_regulation (increase) of SBP
2) Confidence 0.45 Published 2010 Journal Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine : Peer-reviewed, Official Publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine Section Body Doc Link PMC2888327 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0
However, with repeated heroin use, the brain responds to these successive large DA releases by increasing the number and strength of the brakes on the VTA DA neurons.
Positive_regulation (increasing) of VTA DA in brain associated with ventral tegmentum, dopamine and opiate addiction
3) Confidence 0.31 Published 2002 Journal Sci Pract Perspect Section Body Doc Link PMC2851054 Disease Relevance 0.46 Pain Relevance 1.25
Importantly, responses in the NAc and VTA were strongly correlated pointing to an association between dopamine release and NAc response to music.
Positive_regulation (responses) of VTA in NAc associated with ventral tegmentum, nucleus accumbens and dopamine
4) Confidence 0.23 Published 2010 Journal Med. Hypotheses Section Abstract Doc Link 19914781 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.59
Listing to pleasant music induced a strong response and significant activation of the VTA-mediated interaction of the NAc with the hypothalamus, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex.
Positive_regulation (activation) of VTA in insula associated with nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmentum and insula
5) Confidence 0.23 Published 2010 Journal Med. Hypotheses Section Abstract Doc Link 19914781 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.59
High voltage electrical stimulation of the NAc in both animals and humans has been found to elicit pleasurable and sexual responses [68,69] and ejaculation in human males has been found to correlate with activation of the VTA [64].


Positive_regulation (activation) of VTA associated with ventral tegmentum and nucleus accumbens
6) Confidence 0.14 Published 2008 Journal Ann Gen Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2515304 Disease Relevance 0.65 Pain Relevance 0.39
Thus, it is possible that stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex with rTMS and subsequent activation of VTA via glutamatergic projection can possibly influence VTA dopaminergic neurons and cause dopaminergic changes in ACC/medial orbitofrontal area.
Positive_regulation (activation) of VTA in medial associated with ventral tegmentum and anterior cingulate cortex
7) Confidence 0.11 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2725302 Disease Relevance 0.11 Pain Relevance 0.68
The VTA has also been found to be strongly activated during ejaculation in male humans [64] cocaine induced euphoria [65] and the heroin rush [66].
Positive_regulation (activated) of VTA associated with ventral tegmentum and cocaine
8) Confidence 0.09 Published 2008 Journal Ann Gen Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2515304 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.58
TH and alpha-synuclein mRNA levels were, in contrast, elevated in the VTA PN in heroin users with no change of the D2 receptor.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of VTA PN associated with ventral tegmentum and opiate addiction
9) Confidence 0.09 Published 2007 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 18057194 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0.78
Listing to pleasant music induced a strong response and significant activation of the VTA-mediated interaction of the NAc with the hypothalamus, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex.
Positive_regulation (activation) of VTA in hypothalamus associated with nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmentum and insula
10) Confidence 0.08 Published 2010 Journal Med. Hypotheses Section Abstract Doc Link 19914781 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.59
For example, stimulants such as amphetamines and cocaine directly increase dopaminergic transmission in the NAc; opiates inhibit GABAergic interneurons in the VTA by disinhibiting VTA dopamine neurons projecting to the NAc; and nicotine seems to activate VTA dopamine neurons both directly and indirectly via stimulation of glutamatergic terminals innervating dopamine cells (Nestler 2005; Lüscher & Ungless 2006).
Positive_regulation (activate) of VTA in dopamine neurons associated with ventral tegmentum, nucleus accumbens, dopamine, nicotine, gabaergic, opiate and cocaine
11) Confidence 0.05 Published 2008 Journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Section Body Doc Link PMC2367444 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0.82
In the case of the mesocoerulear pathway, the preferential blockade of inhibitory pre-synaptic receptors would increase the activity of the VTA neurones.
Positive_regulation (increase) of VTA
12) Confidence 0.04 Published 2008 Journal Current Neuropharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2687931 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.55
Taken together, these results suggest that all three opioid receptor subtypes of ventral tegmentum and not of lateral hypothalamus are involved in the electrically evoked self-stimulation of VTA-SN.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of VTA-SN in hypothalamus associated with ventral tegmentum and opioid receptor
13) Confidence 0.02 Published 1994 Journal Physiol. Behav. Section Abstract Doc Link 7910690 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.58
To specify the cellular mechanisms through which AMPH acts in the VTA and leads to behavioral sensitization after repeated intra-VTA injections, the involvement of VTA DA D1 and D2 and serotonin2 receptors in this phenomenon was investigated in independent experiments.
Spec (investigated) Positive_regulation (involvement) of VTA DA D1 associated with ventral tegmentum and dopamine
14) Confidence 0.01 Published 1996 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 8627530 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.69

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