INT66599

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Context Info
Confidence 0.78
First Reported 1996
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 16
Total Number 24
Disease Relevance 12.37
Pain Relevance 3.12

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

plasma membrane (MC4R) signal transducer activity (MC4R)
Anatomy Link Frequency
brain 4
testes 3
papilla 2
liver 1
MC3 1
MC4R (Homo sapiens)
MC4R - V103I (1)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
antagonist 42 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
melanocortin 1 receptor 26 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 3 98.76 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 29 97.20 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 8 93.48 High High
Potency 9 85.92 High High
Pain 6 81.36 Quite High
nud 6 73.84 Quite High
cytokine 2 66.16 Quite High
Inflammatory response 2 53.36 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Targeted Disruption 6 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Appetite Loss 372 99.46 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 366 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Weight Loss 114 96.40 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 46 95.88 Very High Very High Very High
Anorexia 90 95.76 Very High Very High Very High
Neuroblastoma 7 94.12 High High
INFLAMMATION 10 93.48 High High
Experimental Melanoma 2 90.56 High High
Microphthalmia 2 90.40 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Orally bioavailable potent antagonists of the human MC4R (e.g. synthesized compounds of Pyrrolidinones) demonstrated in vivo efficacy in protecting against cachectic symptoms in animal models of tumour-induced wasting and may be a suitable approach for the treatment of cachexia [14,15].
Gene_expression (synthesized) of MC4R associated with appetite loss, cancer and antagonist
1) Confidence 0.78 Published 2008 Journal BMC Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC2359760 Disease Relevance 1.71 Pain Relevance 0.22
The MC4R gene is expressed in multiple sites in the brain (Liu et al, 2003) and mutations in this gene have been associated with obesity (Huszar et al, 1997).
Gene_expression (expressed) of MC4R in brain associated with obesity
2) Confidence 0.74 Published 2010 Journal EMBO J Section Body Doc Link PMC2876958 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0
MC4R could only be detected in pituitary.
Gene_expression (detected) of MC4R in pituitary
3) Confidence 0.74 Published 1996 Journal Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. Section Abstract Doc Link 8932521 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.08
This mechanism might lead to a reduced signalling of the MC4R expressing cells and thus result in an inborn resistance to the development of cancer cachexia.
Gene_expression (expressing) of MC4R associated with appetite loss and cancer
4) Confidence 0.68 Published 2008 Journal BMC Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC2359760 Disease Relevance 0.96 Pain Relevance 0.20
Here, the potential role of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) was investigated.
Spec (investigated) Gene_expression (role) of melanocortin-4 receptor gene
5) Confidence 0.67 Published 2008 Journal BMC Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC2359760 Disease Relevance 2.23 Pain Relevance 0.23
A series of experiments demonstrated that cancer cachexia is ameliorated by central MC4R blockade in MC4R knock out mice or by peripheral administration of an antagonist (e.g. agouti-related protein – AGRP) in rats, mice and sheep [9-13].
Gene_expression (blockade) of MC4R associated with targeted disruption, appetite loss, cancer and antagonist
6) Confidence 0.67 Published 2008 Journal BMC Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC2359760 Disease Relevance 1.98 Pain Relevance 0.23
Here, the potential role of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) was investigated.
Spec (investigated) Gene_expression (role) of MC4R
7) Confidence 0.67 Published 2008 Journal BMC Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC2359760 Disease Relevance 2.24 Pain Relevance 0.23
To gain insight into the molecular determinants of hMC4R in the selectivity of SHU9119 chimeras and mutants hMC1R and hMC4R were expressed in cell lines and pharmacologically analyzed.
Gene_expression (expressed) of hMC4R
8) Confidence 0.66 Published 2002 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 11912210 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.31
Our results provide evidence that the MC4-R is expressed in situ and in vitro throughout the human epidermis at the mRNA and protein level using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and double immunofluorescence staining.
Gene_expression (expressed) of MC4-R in epidermis
9) Confidence 0.64 Published 2009 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 18974267 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.08
flanking sequences of the JUNB gene were amplified by PCR, fused to MC4R sequences downstream of P1 replacing the MC4R 3?
Gene_expression (replacing) of MC4R
10) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal EMBO J Section Body Doc Link PMC2876958 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.28
MC4R Val103Ile polymorphism
Gene_expression (polymorphism) of MC4R (V103I)
11) Confidence 0.59 Published 2008 Journal BMC Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC2359760 Disease Relevance 1.96 Pain Relevance 0
To gain insight into the molecular determinants of hMC4R in the selectivity of SHU9119 chimeras and mutants hMC1R and hMC4R were expressed in cell lines and pharmacologically analyzed.
Gene_expression (expressed) of hMC4R
12) Confidence 0.57 Published 2002 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 11912210 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.32
Moreover, radioligand binding studies yielded high-affinity receptors for beta-MSH on epidermal melanocytes (3600 receptors per cell), undifferentiated keratinocytes (7200 receptors per cell), and differentiated keratinocytes (72,700 receptors per cell), indicating that MC4-R expression correlates with epidermal differentiation.
Gene_expression (expression) of MC4-R in melanocytes
13) Confidence 0.56 Published 2009 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 18974267 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.10
flanking sequences of the JUNB gene were amplified by PCR, fused to MC4R sequences downstream of P1 replacing the MC4R 3?
Gene_expression (sequences) of MC4R
14) Confidence 0.56 Published 2010 Journal EMBO J Section Body Doc Link PMC2876958 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.31
Brain expression of MC4R was not significantly different between the two populations (Figure. 3c, t-test: t = 0.402, p = 0.697).


Gene_expression (expression) of MC4R in Brain
15) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2949876 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Western blot analyses showed significant differences in the expression of MC3R and MC4R in the lizards' brain and testes, using actin as an internal standard (Figures 3b and 3c).
Gene_expression (expression) of MC4R in testes
16) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2949876 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
We found that MC4R expression in testes of insular male lizards was almost twice that observed in mainland lizards (range: 1.4-3, t-test: t = 2.445, p = 0.037).
Gene_expression (expression) of MC4R in testes
17) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2949876 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
We tested differential expression of MC3R and MC4R between island and mainland populations by western blotting of testis and brain lysates (n = 10 males per population) and used lysates from human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) as a control.
Gene_expression (expression) of MC4R in brain associated with neuroblastoma
18) Confidence 0.19 Published 2010 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2949876 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0
Moreover, food deprivation increases MC4R expression in the liver of barfin flounder Verasper moseri [56].
Gene_expression (expression) of MC4R in liver
19) Confidence 0.17 Published 2010 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2949876 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.05
In contrast to the dermal papilla of agouti mice, agouti signaling protein, a natural and highly selective MC-1R and MC-4R antagonist, was undetectable in human DPCs.
Gene_expression (undetectable) of MC-4R in papilla associated with antagonist
20) Confidence 0.11 Published 2005 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 16081629 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.20

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